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Cookers (centers)
And heating guards

Cookers serve for cooking, heating of water, heating of premises, zaparki forages for cattle, drying of various products, and also clothes. Teplootdacha plates does not exceed 1 kw (900 kcal/ch). For increase teplootdachi them connect to heating guards.

Plates can be the different sizes and weight, however their height irrespective of the size and designs makes 77 see

At a plate laying it is necessary to consider the sizes of the top pig-iron flooring, ovens, water-heating boxes. Some pig-iron plates from the bottom party have ledges (so-called sides), therefore the sizes of the furnace should be such that sides of the top pig-iron flooring have freely entered into a laying and had from different directions a backlash not less than 5 mm for metal expansion at heating. If it not to make, metal, extending, will destroy an oven laying. Distinguish plates simple - have neither ovens, nor a water-heating box, no average complexity - with an oven, difficult - with an oven and a water-heating box. The fire chamber can be located in front or sideways. An oven and a water-heating box have or in common (to the right of a fire chamber), or separately (from two parties). In the first case one latch, in the second - two is required.

the Kitchen centers (cookers): and - the kitchen center with an oven and the water-heating box, located together, - the kitchen center with an oven and the water-heating box, located between toplivnikom: 1 - blew, 2 - a fire chamber, 3 - cleaning, 4 - a latch, 5 - a water-heating box, 6 - an oven Plates (centers) work so (fig. 175). In a simple plate hot gases from toplivnika go under a pig-iron plate, and therefrom through vyvodnoj the channel to a pipe or a heating guard. In other plates hot gases also at first go under a pig-iron plate, and then under an oven and a water-heating box, washing them from three parties. Only after that they get to a pipe or a heating guard.

At a laying of the kitchen center directly on wooden the floor or the enclosed wooden board prior to the beginning of work should execute the following: to put on a floor or a board three layers of sheet asbestos or two layers of the sheet felt soaked in a clay solution, to cover with their steel sheet and to nail up. On this sheet put a center outline, and on a clay solution put the laying first row. Before a fire chamber krepjat in a steel sheet (on asbestos or felt) in the size 50 X 70 sm, hammering in nails through everyone 5 see Over sheet establish a plinth. It is possible to beat at first a plinth round the furnace, and predtopochnyj sheet to bend for it, but it is more difficult.

That last, top number of a laying of the center was stronger, on it stack obvjazku from an angular steel ("¶р эё"). If the plate adjoins a heating guard, "¶р эё" put from three parties; if it is far from it, from four.

the Kitchen center: 1 - two layers of the felt soaked in glinjannom a solution and covered with a roofing steel, 2 - cleaning, 3 - kljammery, 4 - a framework from an angular steel with kljammerami from a steel tape the Kitchen simple center (fig. 176) the size 890 X 510 mm, height 770 mm and weight 530 kg have teplootdachu at two fire chambers a day 0,8 Vt (700 kcal/ch).


  • a red brick - 118 sht;
  • a clay solution - 5 buckets;
  • a grid-iron lattice in the size 250 h 250 mm;
  • top internal dverka ordinary in the size 250 h 205 mm;
  • dverki podduvalnaja and prochistnaja in the size 130 h 140 mm - 2 pieces;
  • a pig-iron plate compound with rings in the size 410 h 360 mm - 2 pieces;
  • two sheets of a roofing steel - predtopochnyj in the size 500 h 700 mm and under a plate - the size 890 X 510 mm, building felt - 0,7 kg;
  • obvjazka (corner) 30 h 30 h 4 mm - 2,9 m;
  • a steel tape in the size 25 h 15 mm - 2 m;
  • a smoke latch in the size 130 h 130 mm.

A center Laying. First of all it is necessary to study drawings attentively: a facade, the sizes and porjadovki. If the base top it level is made. If the center is put on a floor or a wooden board at first carry out preparation as it has been told above. By means of a square and a ruler check prjamougolnost the drawn form of the center. Having prepared a clay solution, start a laying.

  • 1st number carry out from the whole brick. A laying of this number check on prjamougolnost and conformity to the established sizes.

  • 2nd number put also from the whole brick. Its laying is simple, it is necessary to tie up seams well only.

  • 3rd number put, as 1st, but on the right side arrange blew (box) and establish podduvalnuju dverku, opiraja it on the second row and clamping from two parties trehchetverkami.

  • 4th number differs from 3rd themes that has on the left side a conclusion - the channel from which smoke gases get to a pipe or a heating guard. Width of the channel of 140 mm. Sideways, against the channel, put cleaning. She leans against 3rd number.

  • 5th a number same, as well as 4th. podduvalnuju dverku block a laying, and there is an aperture in the size 260 h 260 mm. Later here the grid-iron lattice will be put.

  • 6th number blocks cleaning; in it there is an aperture in the size 200 X 260 mm which becomes continuation of the vertical channel (on fig. 176 is shown by a black triangle). On the right side under a grid-iron lattice leave an aperture in the size 200 h 260 mm.

  • 7th number. the Vertical channel here is narrowed to 260 X 130 mm. Over podduvalom with a support on a sixth row put a grid-iron lattice, receding from different directions on 10 mm. That the size has not changed, bricks stacked from two parties against a lattice move a little in the furnace (the cut V-V see). the Bricks adjoining to a grid-iron lattice, otesyvajut (they are shaded), forming inclined planes - slopes on which fuel rolls down on a lattice (a cut A-A).

  • 8th number forms toplivnik in the size 520 h 260 mm; here establish top internal dverku, leaning against 7th number.

  • 9 and 10th numbers. the Laying of these numbers is similar to a laying of 8th. Here it is important to observe bandaging of seams.

  • 11th number - finishing. It should be executed strictly horizontally. Top internal dverku block, and a partition or a wall separating the vertical channel on which smoke gases arrive to the target channel, do not spread.

  • 12th number as that does not exist, at this stage stack a pig-iron flooring on a liquid clay solution. The top bricks of 11th number fasten obvjazkoj - "¶р эёюь" i.e. A framework bent from a corner 30 h 30 h 4 mm, with priklepannymi to it pads, or kljammerami, from a tape steel. Kljammery have on two furnaces from the long party and on one - with short. As the framework with kljammerami cannot be put on executed 11th number, it establish on 10th number and fix 11th. It is desirable to attach To a framework in front iszadi skoby on which it is possible to hang up wet towels for drying. And skoby it is necessary to cover a framework with the fire-resistant varnish protecting a steel from rzhavlenija. If a corner and skoby are executed from corrosion-proof metal the covering a varnish is not required.

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