Deal floors lay or directly on beams or on the logs laid on beams. Beams for floors can be cut into the bottom wreaths rublenyh walls or to stack on carefully isolated brick or concrete columns established on perimetre of the house on distance of 700-1000 mm one from another. If beams have leaky laid down on columns, under them line wedges but so that they did not lift beams.
If beams are laid seldom, and boards for nastilki floors not so thick and during circulation can cave in, on beams, on antiseptirovannye linings from wood-fiber plates or other material, at first stack logs humidity no more than 20% (the less, the better).
Sometimes instead of brick or concrete columns put very dry antiseptirovannye wooden columns in diameter of 200-300 mm, but they are less durable, than brick and concrete. For increase of durability of their such columns it is better to execute from an oak well burnt or antiseptirovannogo. Often such columns in holes fall asleep not a ground, and rubble or gravel or apply large stones. All well condense it. In this case wood does not rot longer.
Packing of beams on columns facilitates the subsequent repair of floors and especially beams which simply take out and replace new. The beams cut into wreaths to replace much more difficult as to the ends of beams form lastochkina a tail and to insert them into apertures in beams of walls it is impossible without lifting sruba (house walls).
At the continuous base of a beam are cut between the first and the second wreaths, at stolbchatom the base - between the second and the third (fig. 24). (It do that it was not weakened okladnoj a wreath.) the beam end cut or for all thickness of a wreath with an exit of an end face of a beam outside and well isolate, or "т яю=хьюъ" hiding a beam end face in thickness of a wreath.
Logs usually lay with distance between them of 500-800 mm. However depending on a thickness the log is distance can increase: at a thickness a log of 40 mm - to 900 mm, at a thickness of 50 mm - to 1100 mm, at a thickness of 60 mm - to 1200-1300 mm. Thus it is necessary to consider and a thickness of boards for nastilki a floor. Logs in all cases should be in the width 100-120 mm.
Logs should be stacked not only on beams, but also on ferro-concrete overlapping. In this case sound-proof zasypkoj sand or slag with grains serves 10 mm (humidity of these materials no more than 10%) are not larger. A thickness zasypki no more than 20 mm. To condense zasypki it is impossible, as thus they lose thermal and sound-proof properties. Level logs podsypkoj. It is possible to use and wedges, but under them then it is necessary to put two-three layers of roofing material and necessarily to nail up wedges to beams.
Logs in length can be joined than 1000 mm end-to-end and necessarily on a support not less. The ends fasten a log, that they have not dispersed, with.pomoshchju skob or the long nails which are driven in into logs and beams.
Packing a log. In bottlenecks logs put across (boards - in a movement direction); in premises with windows - across a direction of window light. Flatness of a surface a log check two-metre fugovannoj rejkoj with level: rejka should concern laid a log without backlashes.
Floor Boards lay in two ways: usual - nails drive in from a face sheet of boards and parquet - nails hammer at an angle 45 ° into a corner of a crest with vtaplivaniem in hats in wood.
At nastilke it is not recommended to beat boards of their floor strongly at once to logs or beams: is better to beat slightly and to leave so not less than for one year. It is necessary for full drying of boards. perestilku such floor is better to carry out in the winter - in January-February. At this time weather conditions are steady enough, boards have normal humidity, therefore between them the big cracks are not formed. (It is recommendations of old masters.)
That boards the edges adjoined one to another more densely, they are necessary for compressing. Therefore, having laid and having beaten the first board, near to it ugladyvajut the second, but do not beat it. On distance of 100-150 mm from it in a log or drive in into a beam skoby. To a board put a lining in length not less than 500 mm, and between it and skoboj drive in one or two wedges. Wedges hammer until the second board densely will not nestle to earlier beaten. Then a board nail up, flattening hats and utaplivaja them in wood on 3-5 mm. The backlash between floor boards should not exceed 1 mm. Skoby it is recommended to drive in into the first to a log or a beam, and then through 2-3 m. For work it is necessary a minimum three skoby. Usual skoby often split logs, to avoid it allow skoby to Smoljakova with three ends which it is easy to make (fig. 25).
Floors from edging and not edging boards. to Stack boards it is recommended so that their year layers have been directed every which way (fig. 26). It allows to receive the most equal floor.
If boards edging their face sheets plane. Edges thus can be left nestroganymi. However it is better than an edge ostrogat and otfugovat then they adjoin one to another more densely. Such nastilka is called as joiner's.
Edges plane at right angle or (that is better) with an insignificant bias inside. At excessive skose edges are usually chopped off that leads to formation of the big cracks. At fugovanii board edges put one with another, discrepancies correct, and boards mark not to confuse them at nastilke.
The First board krepjat on distance of 10-15 mm from a wall that is necessary for aeration, and in a case namokanija - for board increase on width and length.
To the first board put the second, densely press it with the help skob and wedges, then krepjat. Thus, lay all boards, only a few the last should be compressed in another way. Into the remained small space between boards and a wall to hammer skoby it is impossible, therefore two-four boards at first stack freely. Last from them, adjoining a wall, should be such width that between it and a wall there was a backlash of 10-15 mm. Such board or select for width, or cut, or stesyvajut a part of wood from wider board. For example, at a wall it is necessary to stack four boards: three of them can be compressed and beaten, but the fourth it is necessary krepit differently. If a wall wooden this board stack, then between it and a wall drive in some wedges, strongly press a board and krepjat nails.
If walls are plastered, preliminary put to a wall a lining from plywood, a thin board, a drevesno-fibrous plate, than protect plaster from damage. Then stack the fourth board and rebuff (lower) its hammer or an axe that it has sat down into place and has compressed to some extent earlier laid and not beaten boards. It is not necessary to strike blows to the board not to leave on it a dent, and on a board it is necessary to put a piece of other board or bruska as a lining. If the boards laid thus are not compressed densely between a lining at a wall and a board insert wedges, hammer in them, densely rallying boards, and fix their nails which are driven in into beams or logs (fig. 27). Nails apply of 2-2,5 times thicker than boards, also hammer in them into everyone to a log or a beam.
The Backlash between correctly nastlannymi boards not should be more than 1 mm. If the backlash appears more boards during time splachivanija check, release from wedges, take out, correct discrepancies, and then again put into place.
After that floors check and correct proscales, i.e. Acting or sinking down sites of a floor. Correction carry out pristrozhkoj.
Floors from the milled boards. These boards produce at factories. They have a groove and a crest located from opposite sides on their length. Such boards let out in the width from 74 to 144 mm, thickness of 28 and 36 mm. Except boards, produce bruski in the width from 35 to 55 mm and thickness of 28 mm. In the bottom of each board or bruska choose deepening, or prospirit, height 2 mm (fig. 28) thanks to which boards or bruski densely lay down on beams or logs and provide reliable ventilation at the device double (warmed) floors. However it is much more reliable to arrange between boards and beams (or logs) special apertures (prospirits) triangular form in width of 20 mm and height 10-20 mm.
For a dense adjunction of boards or bruskov to each other from a groove face sheet becomes small skos that boards adjoined one to another more densely.
At nastilke a floor the first board stack to a wall a groove, but not closely, and with a space. Nails hammer into each beam or to a log. Some masters recommend of 90 mm in boards in width and more to hammer on two nails. Hats of nails utaplivajut in thickness of wood with the help dobojnika on depth of 3-5 mm. It is necessary that at removal of proscales not to blunt a plane knife.
After pristrozhki over hats of nails it is desirable to cover such deepenings shpatlevkoj (oil or semioil) that in them water did not gather.
Nastilka of floors from such boards is made as follows. To the first board put the second, with the help skob and wedges compress and nail up. Behind the second board lay third etc. Last boards lay the same as it has been considered earlier. The lining between a board and wedges should have a groove for putting on on a crest not to crumple it.
the Double warmed floors (29) suit fig. over an underground, i.e. On the ground floor of a building or in interfloor overlapping (between the first and the second floors). These floors consist of two floorings - pure and black (selection) and warming zasypki between them. Floorings are on some distance one from another. The subfloor for the ground floor (over the Underground) becomes from gorbylej, for interfloor overlappings - from plates or boards. Gorbyli, or boards than 50 mm are recommended to take plates dry, thickness not less. Them do not beat to beams, and stack in the chosen grooves in a beam - shpunty or skulls or stack on beaten cranial bruski.
At first lay a subfloor, grease it otoshchennym with a clay solution a layer no more than 15 mm, dry and only then of 50 mm or slag krupnostju no more than 10 mm fall asleep dry small sand a layer. Instead on a ground floor floor it is possible to lay roofing material and to fall asleep its dry sand.
For space aeration between two floorings and zasypkoj between them in pure to a floor necessarily bore through on premise corners ventilating apertures (three-four) diameter on 10-15 mm which from rodents close metal lattices.
That water there has not got at washing of floors, lattices lift over floor level on 10 mm. For this purpose at first krepjat frameworks, and on them by means of lattice screws. Frameworks are better for beating to a floor not dry, and on putty or oil shpatlevke. It is necessary to remember that sand or slag humidifying (zasypki) can lead to formation of a house mushroom.
Instead of lattices it is possible to put plinths with ventilating apertures (fig. 30 see). In the big premises ventilating lattices put in each corner, in small - in two corners on a diagonal.
As wearing floor boards can densely adjoin to beams that interferes with ventilation on top of beams through 500-600 mm should be made cuts (about what was already told). Cuts it is recommended to have so that they had in the middle of width of boards. Cuts cut down an axe during time nastilki floors. All dust from cutting down necessarily clean.