It is necessary to prepare Concrete plastic, i.e. Concerning dense, but at the same time more mobile, requiring the minimum consolidation. However at filling of a timbering it is necessary to condense all concrete mixes with them. It is possible to prepare rigid concrete (as the damp earth), but at its packing strong enough consolidation is required. Prepare also cast concrete (liquid) which is more convenient in packing, but also less prochen. Than more dense concrete and the more strongly it is condensed rammed), the above its durability, and on the contrary. For preparation 1м 3 concrete it is required on the average from 160 to 180 l of water.
Surplus of cement in concrete leads to its over-expenditure, and the lack - reduces density, frost resistance of concrete, raises its water penetration, promotes corrosion of the laid armature. At preparation of concrete weight the mix considerably decreases in volume. From 1 m 3 dry displace it turns out from 0,59 to 0,71 m 3 concrete weight. Therefore for preparation 3 concrete weight it is necessary to take of 1 m much more dry materials. For example, for one structure of concrete 0,445 m 3 sand, and 0,87 m 3 gravel, 0,193 m 3 cement (250 kg), 178 l of water are required; for another - 0,395 m 3 sand, 0,88 m 3 gravel, 0,198 m 3 cement (260 kg), 185 l of water etc.
Materials for concrete preparation measure volume parts. It is necessary for portion of concrete to prepare no more than for one business hour. Cement should be applied such mark which would exceed the set class of concrete in 2-3 times (for portlandtsementa in 2 times, for other cements - in 3 times). For example, In 12,5 it is necessary to apply cement of mark to class concrete 400.
It was above told about necessity to produce armature at ferro-concrete walls and cellar overlappings. Prutki armatures have vertically and horizontally. Each crossing prutkov is necessary for connecting a wire. In a floor armature do not mount. At the device of a ferro-concrete ceiling distance between armature cores reduce to 6-8 the Thickness of concrete for walls see should make 10 sm, for overlappings - 7-10 see
That the brick or stone laying was stronger, through three-four numbers across in seams it is necessary to stack armature in the thickness of 6 mm on distance of 8 sm from each other (two-three prutka on a thickness of a wall through 3-5 numbers).
The Stone, a brick, concrete and a cement mortal, despite the durability, nevertheless pass water (in a stone laying through seams), therefore a floor and cellar or glacier walls should be reliably gidroi-zolirovany.
The Elementary waterproofing can be executed from the fat crushed clay laid by a layer from 10 to 20 sm and carefully condensed (stamped). To stack such dense clay follows layers in the thickness of 5-7 sm with the subsequent consolidation. The more fatly clay, the it less vodopronitsaema.
It is possible to apply roofing felt and roofing material, however to lay them follows not dry, and to paste by means of mastics. Preliminary those places of roofing felt and roofing material which paste, clear of powder shpatelem or other tool. If not to remove powder, the material will be pasted badly and through it water will filter. Edges of cloths should be blocked one another not less than on 10 see
Roofing felt paste with the help degtevoj mastics. For preparation of mastic of 10 kg 5 kg of coal tar, 3 kg of a coal pitch and 2 kg dry small napolnitelja (a peat crumb, a ground chalk, pounded slag or limestone with the wood flour, sifted through a fine sieve) are necessary.
Prepare mastic as follows. (The copper, a tank) on 3/4 its volumes load into strong ware tar, heat up it and add there in the small portions a coal pitch which is recommended to be pinned as it is possible more small. All plavjat also mix it until foaming will stop. Then foam and the emerged extraneous impurity delete bankoj with apertures, which krepjat on the long handle. Having extinguished fire, add in ware in the small portions napolnitel, all carefully mix. The received hot mastic put a rigid brush or a brush for one-two time, without supposing thus its hit on a surface of walls.
Roofing material paste bitumen mastic. For preparation of mastic of 10 kg 8,5 kg of oil bitumen БН-70/30 and 1,5-1,7 kg napolnitelja are required. The technology of preparation of bitumen mastic is similar above described. To prepare it follows for 2-3 ch prior to the beginning of work.
These mastics it is possible not only to paste rolled materials, but also simply to cover concrete, brick and stone surfaces for two times without the subsequent label of waterproofing materials. Stronger mastic appears when the cement, concrete, stone and brick bases preliminary ground liquid binding gruntami: bitumen - under bitumen mastics, pekovymi - under degtevye mastics.
The Bitumen first coat prepare from oil bitumen БН-50/50 or БН-70/30 (40%), kerosene, soljarovogo or green oil (60%). Other structure: bitumen of 30%, gasoline or benzene of 70%. For degtevoj first coats use a coal pitch - 30%, benzene - 70%.
Prepare them so. At first plavjat bitumen or a pitch before full dehydration, remove foam and extraneous impurity then extinguish fire. As soon as mastics will cool down to 60... 80°С, in them in the small portions at careful hashing pour in solvent. The first coats prepared thus merge in hermetically closed ware and store till the application moment. It is necessary to remember that the first coat is inflammable, therefore it is necessary to provide measures of fire safety in places of its storage, and also at use.
Correctly prepared cold first coats should dry up on the hardened concrete or on cement plaster no more than for 10 ch, and on svezheulozhennyh couplers - for 12-48 ch. With dry concrete or plaster the first coat seizes more strongly and keeps longer, and the main thing - to it sticks mastic that provides a reliable waterproofing of walls and overlappings is better.
Cold first coats to apply more safely, than hot mastics, at work with which observance of safety precautions regulations is required.
The cellar or glacier Device begin that its sizes on external walls mark on the earth. From the planned contour on 50 sm or on 1 m in lateral aspect start to choose a ground, rejecting it as it is possible further, i.e. Dig a foundation ditch. If the ground is showered, it is necessary to arrange retaining walls. The foundation ditch or a hole is better for digging big sizes that allows between walls and a ground to leave the big space (width in 1, necessary for carrying out of plaster and waterproofing works. A hole bottom level and on it stack 3-4 layers of crushed clay in the thickness on 5 sm, it is good it ramming. Then clay level and establish a timbering in height of 10-15 sm, proceeding from the sizes of external walls. The prepared concrete is stacked a layer by of 5 sm, ram, level, dry and on it spread two-three layers of roofing felt or roofing material on mastic or without it. From above stack the same concrete layer, and on it - a cement mortal in a proportion 1:3 (1 ch. Cement on 3 ch. Sand), well it level, rub clean or smooth down and leave for drying on 2-3 sut or more. To warn pollution of floors, it cover with sawdust, peat, a paper, any grass.
On such basis carry out walls. Under walls the basis should be very pure, without any traces zasypki. With that end in view from basis edges remove zasypku in a cellar for the thickness, twice big, than a thickness of walls, and stack walls from a brick, a stone, concrete stones, fastening their solution, or fill in concrete in the arranged timbering.
If walls concrete a timbering arrange so that the thickness of walls was not less than 10 see the Timbering do by height not less than 50 sm, and concrete prepare in the portions for work during 1 ch. Pouring concrete, it carefully ram, for durability put armature. Rearranging a timbering, gradually put up walls to the necessary height. The top of all walls should be at one level.
The Stone laying is better to conduct in a timbering: it turns out more equal and it is more convenient for plastering. Besides, easier in this case to coat seams with a cement mortal.
In 2-3 days start overlapping erection. It can be from concrete plates or monolithic for what the timbering device is required. Is better to provide ferro-concrete overlapping by thickness 10-15 see Armature put in the form of a grid, the thickness armaturnoj a wire not less than 8 mm, distance between prutkami 10 see
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