The Timbering assort not earlier than in 2-3 weeks after concrete packing. In overlapping arrange the hatch-manhole and the loading hatch in the sizes 1x1 m, and also apertures for a ventilating pipe, a wooden box, mount asbestotsementnye or ceramic pipes with latches.
Surfaces of walls from the external and internal parties is better to plaster a cement mortal, it is good to level and jam or smooth down, give the chance to dry out within a week. However will be more correct, if walls to oshtukaturivanija are good for drying within a month and only then to plaster, as under wall plaster dry very slowly. Then walls cover from lateral aspect with mastic, but it is better than them preliminary ogruntovat, and then to cover two-three times with mastic. It is very good to paste over walls with roofing felt or roofing material. If the ground damp it is recommended to lay in addition on walls clay isolation by a layer not less than 10 see Clay apply crushed, well it condense and only then round walls of a cellar from lateral aspect fall asleep a ground layers on 20 sm, is dense it stamping.
In a dry ground it is possible not to arrange isolation. A laying carry out on a clay solution, but it thus will be less strong. If a ground sandy or gravijnyj |он well filters water.
Having arranged the bottom part of a cellar (i.e.), it it is necessary to dry that which is in a ground well, and then inside to whitewash izvestju which is much more practical cretaceous whitewashing and besides disinfects surfaces. In the bottom part in a warm season happens cool, and is much warmer in the winter, than in the street.
The Top part of a cellar - pogrebnitsu - do on 1 m more widely its external sizes. There is it on an earth surface, protecting the bottom part from snow and cooling in the winter or from heating in the summer. If the cellar is in a shed pogrebnitsu it is possible not to arrange. pogrebnitsa the big sizes it is convenient and good that it is possible to store flanks in it, boxes and other container which is released from products. It should not be blown by a wind that sometimes leads to temperature fall in the cellar and to freezing of vegetables.
It is necessary to do the Doorway from a North side, a door - from thick (4-5 sm) densely driven boards, a roof - from malonagrevajushchihsja materials. From walls on-grebnitsy do otmostku not less than 1,5 m in width with a bias for tap of atmospheric waters. The roof canopy over walls pogrebnitsy should be a minimum 40 see
Pogrebnitsu carry out from various materials: a stone, a brick, concrete, a tree. Overlapping for warming it is necessary to fall asleep slag, peat, sawdust, the dry earth, to lay shlakovatoj the necessary thickness. Zasypku it is recommended to do not only on overlapping, but also on all pogrebnitse.
As it has already been told, in overlapping do the hatch-manhole, but it is possible to make in addition and the loading hatch in the size 1x1 m. For installation of ventilating pipes leave apertures in the size from 20x20 to 30x30 the sm closed by latches. Cellar ventilation is necessary both in the winter, and in the summer. Ventilating pipes in pogrebnitse warm any material, and from above close a frequent grid from rodents. The Hatch-manhole and loading hatches cover, and then any teploizoljatsionnym a material. For this purpose is better to sew a special blanket.
The Combustible materials applied at zasypke, in order to avoid a fire cover from above with a layer of the earth or slag in the thickness not less than 5 It see meets the requirements of fire safety.
In a cellar arrange regiments and granaries for storage of products. Them it is possible to have at own discretion, but it is obligatory with observance of free space between them that to all products there was an access of fresh air.
Under the hatch-manhole arrange a strong ladder with vrezannymi in a bowstring steps which in addition nail up. Krepit steps only nails dangerously: it can lead to accident.
On a concrete floor in a cellar it is possible to lay wooden, having lifted it over concrete not less than on 10 see it and there should be granaries. It gives the chance to ventilate well a bottom of a cellar and long to keep fresh such products as a potato, a beet, carrots, etc. the Wood applied in a cellar, should be oshkurennoj, dry and processed protivognilostnymi substances or at least a solution copper kuporosa (on 1 ch. kuporosa 9 ch. Waters). The Antiseptirovannyj material well dry and only then use for building. The considered design of a cellar is the elementary (fig. 205.
It it is possible to improve a floor considerably, having arranged ventilating channels from two opposite sides. One channel is intended for receipt of fresh air. It begins from level of a floor and is deduced through overlapping in pogrebnitsu on 50 see It it is possible to deduce and outside. The top part of the channel necessarily close a grid with cells 0,5x0,5 see Other channel - exhaust begins from overlapping and is deduced outside through pogrebnitsu so that it acted over the fad not less than on 50 see It do with deflektorom which promotes the best ventilation of a cellar. The channel also should be closed a grid. Channels do with latches with which help regulate cellar ventilation, and well warm. It is recommended to paint ventilating channels both with internal, and from lateral aspect an oil paint. Besides, it is necessary to warn hit in a cellar of an atmospheric precipitation (fig. 205,).
It is possible to arrange the Cellar with platform which dig in the earth and well warm. In platform do steps, and in the wall of a cellar adjoining platform, - a door. Platform and cellar doors should be closed densely and if necessary to be warmed.
In summertime it is necessary to air well a cellar, to whitewash izvestju, to dry and by that to prepare for storage of products. Correctly prepared cellar provides reliable storage of every possible products. In a crude cellar products quickly become unfit for use.
The Glacier arrange the same as also a cellar, but it is possible without overlapping. The laid ice or snow fall asleep sawdust, straw or kamyshitovymi floor-mats. In a glacier, on walls, arrange granaries which fill with snow or ice, there put ware with products. In the glacier center leave free space.
If a ground crude in a glacier it is necessary to do a floor concrete, with good isolation and isolated prijamkom for gathering of water from the thawed snow or ice. If a ground dry, sandy or gravijnyj, well filtering water to do a floor concrete does not follow.
In glaciers always provide the good thermal protection protecting snow and ice from fast thawing.
In summary it would be desirable to remind - the drier a cellar, the better in it products remain. Therefore irrespective of a ground condition even if it very dry, is recommended to arrange an additional waterproofing of walls as with external, and from the inside (provided that the floor is executed very well).
The Most accessible waterproofing - oshtukaturivanie a cement mortal of structure from 1:3 to 1:5 (цемент:песок in parts on volume). Sand preliminary sift through a sieve with cells not less often 5x5 mm. The prepared dry mix should be very well mixed.
It is necessary to remind also that the less than sand, the the solution is more plastic. To put rigid solutions, i.e. Solutions with the big maintenance of sand, it is difficult, as they badly stick to a surface (slip). To put such solutions follows thin layers. A rigid solution more vodopronitsaem.
Structure cement mortals 1:3 on tserezitovoj emulsii Are good. It smetanoobraznaja weight of white colour with an ammonia smell, sometimes with a yellowish shade. For solution preparation on 1 ch. tserezita (on volume) take 10 ch. Waters and all carefully mix to a homogeneous rather turbid liquid on which shut a cement mix. That the second layer of a solution did not slip with earlier seized, put layers should be thin.
Plaster smooth down a shovel, kelmoj or rub clean in the usual way - a grater. After oshtukaturivanija it is necessary to dry an internal part of a cellar well.
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