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the cellar Device

Large supplies of a foodstuff are convenient for storing in special premises - pantries or cellars. Their sizes happen various. Pantries can be in premises or outside.

Dry products store in pantries with the floors lifted over level of the earth not less than on 50 see better if the height of floors over earth level exceeds the specified. Kladovku it is necessary to arrange with the ventilation providing inflow of fresh air that promotes long preservation of products. Walls, a ceiling, a floor should be without cracks, however in them it is recommended to arrange the ventilating apertures closed by a frequent grid and densely closed dverkami. On walls of such pantries arrange regiments or chests-boxes in which store products.

The Pantry, and also territory round it should be pure. That in a pantry wreckers were not got ambarnye, it is necessary to wash out it of one-two time a year a disinfectant solution and to air. Not all products can be stored in such pantries. For example, for a potato, a sauerkraut, a pickles, marinades it is necessary to arrange a cellar, and for perishable food - a glacier.

Cellars and glaciers are necessary for building only on raised places. In lowlands it is not recommended to do them, as there ground waters more often are close located.

Cellars and glaciers can be square, rectangular or other form. Their height should be not less than 2 m. of the Wall of cellars and glaciers build of various materials, but it is more preferable such strong, as a stone, a brick, concrete. Wooden walls serve in cellars and glaciers not for long. Besides they quickly catch wood mushrooms. Disputes of these mushrooms can be transferred by feet, hands, and also ware, struggle against mushrooms - destroyers of wood very heavy and long. Therefore a cellar or a glacier is better to build of the materials, serving many decades without any repair.

Applied wooden overlappings often do not maintain long service life and they should be changed. In this connection overlapping is better to do concrete or ferro-concrete, applying plates or monolithic concrete.

To a laying of walls apply butovyj a stone, a high quality brick, iron ore, concrete stones is better or arrange a timbering and fill in with its concrete. If into concrete to insert armature ferro-concrete, stronger, than concrete will turn out. Cement is better to apply marks to solutions and concrete 200 or 300. All concrete and solutions with the cement maintenance should be used within one hour after preparation.

For stone or a bricklaying is better to use cement mortals durability not more low 5 MPa (50 kgs/sm2). It is possible to apply cement of different marks To preparation of such solution. For example, at use of cement of mark 200 on 1 ch. Cement (on volume) take 3,5 ch. Sand; at use of cement of mark 300 on 1 ch. Cement - 5 ch. Sand.

It is necessary to prepare the Solution, strictly observing technology. For this purpose sand at first sift through a sieve with cells no more 5x5 mm, measure the necessary quantity of sand and cement and all mix. Sand and cement fill layers as in their such kind it is easier to mix. After hashing the mix should be sifted once again through a sieve. From it it becomes absolutely homogeneous. Then this mix fill in with water to receive a solution of the necessary consistence.

If sand absolutely dry it is possible to prepare a mix for two-three business hours if wet - only for work at one o'clock. If a mix prepare on crude sand and in a considerable quantity cement, being in a mix long time, loses the knitting properties and durability.

Depending on a condition of a ground the thickness of walls of a cellar can make half of brick, i.e. 12,5 sm, but are better to execute it in the thickness in a brick. Walls from a stone should not exceed 25-30 Concrete walls see can be in the thickness from 10 sm and more. If do ferro-concrete walls knit armaturnuju a grid with cells 10x10 see Armature take in the thickness from 5 to 7 mm. The grid should be in the middle of thickness of concrete.

For preparation of 1 m 3 concrete is required on the average cement of 300 kg, sand - from 0,37 to 0,5 m 3 , gravel or rubble - from 0,88 to 0,9 m 3 . Density of concrete depends on quantity of poured in water. To receive good structure of concrete, it is necessary to pick up correctly a large filler (gravel or rubble). We will consider selection of fillers with the greatest fraction of grain of 20 mm.

At first gravel or rubble sift through a sieve with apertures 20x20 mm. That has passed through this sieve, sift again through a sieve with cells 10x10 mm. The rest is called as the first fraction with the size of grains from 11 to 20 mm. Then that has taken place through a sieve 10x10 mm, sift through a sieve with cells 5x5 mm: it is the second fraction with the size of grains from 6 to 10 mm. At last, that has taken place through a sieve with cells 5x5 mm, sift through a sieve with cells 3x3 mm and receive the third fraction with grains from 4 to 5 mm, i.e. the rest on this sieve. For concrete it is possible to prepare a mix from rubble of three fractions: the first - 60%, the second - 30-35% and the third - 10-15% or from its two fractions: the first - 30-35%, the second - 60-40%.

Sand at first sift through a sieve with cells 2,5x2,5 mm. That has passed through it, sift through a sieve with cells 1,2x1,2 mm. The rest on this sieve is the first fraction of sand. Sand which has passed through this sieve, sift through a sieve with cells 0,3x0,3 mm. The rest is called as the second fraction. For mix preparation take 20-50% of sand of the first fraction, 80-50% - the second.

Selection of fillers of the specified structure and quantity gives the chance to receive dense, strong concrete with the least requirement for cement.

For concrete preparation preliminary all large fillers are recommended to be mixed among themselves to a total homogeneity. Separately mix among themselves small fillers, i.e. Cement with sand, and then a mix of large and small fillers mix together to a total homogeneity.

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