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the Device of chimneys
(A part 2)

the Arrangement of pipes on a roof . Chimneys it is recommended to have in the house so that they as it is possible approached to a roof ridge above which where the erected head of a pipe is exposed to influence of an atmospheric precipitation, it is recommended to be put on limy, izvestkovo-cement or a cement mortal, but not on the clay more close. The height of a pipe over a roof depends on on what distance it is from the fad ( fig. 195 ). A head deduce on 500 mm above a roof ridge in the event that it is located not further 1,5 m from it on the spent horizontal line. A head deduce to roof ridge level in the event that it is from the fad on distance of 1,5-3 m. the Head is below roof ridge level (on the spent straight line at an angle 10 ° to horizon) if the pipe is removed from the fad more than on 3 m. In order to avoid drifts by snow the pipe should tower over a roof not less than on 500 mm. If the pipe is located about a high wall or trees with a dense crone, it increase steel or asbestotsementnoj a pipe.

Especially carefully carry out internal surfaces of pipes as roughnesses on internal walls of channels increase resistance to movement of gases, and it, in turn, generates dymlenie furnaces and promotes fast and plentiful adjournment of soot. Littering walls of channels of pipes or furnaces, soot sharply reduces teplootdachu. Besides, soot easily lights up that leads to a fire.

Fire-prevention actions at a laying of pipes. At a pipe laying it is necessary to observe fire-prevention actions strictly. Pipes should be put in the thickness in 1/2 bricks, seams between bricks should be thin, completely filled with a solution.

Pipes can adjoin or pass near to combustible designs of walls, partitions, interfloor and garret overlappings, a roof and obreshetki, therefore between these designs and a pipe it is necessary to leave so-called otstupki or to do "Ёрчфхыъш" from fireproof materials - a brick or concrete. A laying of cutting carry out on clay, limy, izvestkovo-cement or a cement mortal. Cutting should not tie with a pipe laying. The thickness of cutting should be to an equal thickness of a wall or a partition, usually 1/2 or 1/4 of brick. A part of a combustible design adjoining cutting isolate sheet asbestos or two layers of the felt impregnated in a liquid clay solution. It is desirable to impregnate felt in antimolevom structure. The thickness of felt isolation should be not less than 20 mm. If felt thin, it put in two-three layers and more.

196. Isolation uontsov beams in an oven laying about channels; 197. The crossbar device: 1 - beams, 2 - a crossbar, 3 - isolation (felt); 198. Cutting raspushki in garret overlapping: 1 - a beam, 2 - brusok, 3 - nakatnik, 4 - zasypka, 5 - isolation Isolation of the ends of beams. it is frequent in walls where take place smoke channels, stack wooden beams (fig. 196). Them have so that between a beam and an internal surface of the channel there was a distance not less than 250 mm for flues from usual furnaces and 380 mm from furnaces with a long fire chamber. The ends of beams isolate, but end faces leave opened. Between beams or their ends and flues there should be a backlash of 380 mm with obligatory packing izoljatsionnogo a layer.

Sometimes happens so that the beam is located against flues and to take away it in this or that party it is impossible, then such beam do more shortly and cut in a crossbar - the short cross-section beam laid on two beams. Beams fasten with each other a thorn "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=" (fig. 197). The ends of beams put in a wall and a crossbar, adjoining a wall, isolate.

Brick cutting. At radical and mounted pipes, and also at walls in places of passage of channels at level of interfloor and garret overlappings in the course of a laying of a wall or a pipe carry out the horizontal cutting named raspushkami. Them produce in the course of a pipe laying, increasing a thickness of cutting. At brick furnaces with a short-term fire chamber a thickness accept in one brick (250 mm). This distance is considered from "ф№ьр" to combustible wooden designs which are necessary for isolating - to upholster with sheet asbestos, a cardboard or two layers of the felt soaked in a liquid clay solution. At absence izoljatsionnyh materials a thickness of cutting lead up to 1 1/2кирпича (380 mm). However and at such cutting isolation is rather desirable (fig. 198).

If furnaces or the kitchen centers (plates) heat more than 3 ch cutting should be 380 mm with obligatory isolation. In the absence of isolation cutting lead up to two bricks (510 mm).

199. A ferro-concrete plate for maintenance of brick cutting: 1 - a plate, 2 - cutting, 3 - a strut; 200. An arrangement raspushki with the account overlapping deposits: and - to deposits, - after deposits: 1 - raspushka, 2 - prerekrytie, 3 - a pipe strut a cutting Laying - difficult process, therefore in interfloor and garret overlappings raspushki it is necessary to apply a ferro-concrete plate to laying maintenance in the thickness of 50 mm. After a strut laying on this plate it is possible to execute easily raspushku (fig. 199). In this case to tie up raspushku with a strut laying does not follow.

At the device raspushki it is necessary to take into consideration various to a deposit of walls of a building, radical pipes and furnaces. Stone walls, pipes and furnaces give insignificant to a deposit. Wooden rublenye walls, especially from a crude material, settle on the average to 150 mm. Lifting and a deposit of walls are observed and at konopatke. Together with walls settle overlappings. Prior to the beginning konopatnyh works isolation around raspushki delete. It is forbidden opirat a laying brick raspushki on beams or an overlapping flooring as during time deposits the crack can be formed, and it will lead to a fire.

When walls give big to a deposit, than a radical or mounted pipe, cutting carry out so that it had a stock below - indoors. If the radical pipe and the furnace with a mounted pipe give big to a deposit, than walls and overlapping, cutting should have a stock above - on an attic (fig. 200).

Garret overlapping often fall asleep combustible materials: sawdust, peat, dry wood leaves, etc. These materials are easy, maloteploprovodny, but are easily flammable. Such materials from above it is necessary to fall asleep slag, the earth, sand a layer not less than 20 mm. Thus cutting should tower over zasypkoj not less than on 70 mm.

Walls (pipe) on an attic are necessary for whitewashing izvestju or a chalk. On a white background cracks with which immediately it is necessary to cover with a clay solution and zabelit are easily found out.

In two-storeyed houses or at the equipment of garret space for use under habitation floors and filing cannot be laid end-to-end to walls of a radical pipe or smoke channels. They should be finished only to cutting edge, it is necessary to fill other space with a fireproof material: concrete, metlahskoj a tile. Plinths round cutting should be only from a cement mortal, and at all wooden.

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