50% of fires occur owing to failure condition of furnaces, chimneys etc. Carelessly laid out furnace always sits, in it there are cracks and from seams the solution is painted. Getting through cracks and seams hot gases, sparks and fire lead to fast fire of designs, especially wooden (the tree ignites at heating to 300°С). Strongly dried up wood especially quickly lights up. In fires results also the soot fire which considerable quantity collects in smoke channels. In order to avoid fire of the wooden designs adjoining to the furnace, it is necessary to observe fire prevention rules. For this purpose wooden walls, partitions, overlappings etc. It is necessary to have on certain distance from heating up surfaces of the furnace or to isolate them neteploprovodnym and fireproof asbestos (sheet) or the felt soaked in a clay solution.
In places where furnaces are located, the kitchen centers and flues, it is necessary to do "Ёрчфхыъш" i.e. Thickenings of a laying of walls of the furnace or a pipe. Cutting of furnaces of long or continuous burning with thermal isolation do in the thickness 380, without thermal isolation - 510 mm.
Wooden rublenye walls in process usyhanija wood or consolidations konopatki sit that often breaks density of cutting. In this connection the height of cutting should be increased for the size possible deposits. It is forbidden to lay floors or to do filing closely to walls of a radical pipe or furnaces. They should not reach cutting edge on 20 mm. Over cutting in this case apply concrete, ceramic plates, asbestos or felt in a clay solution.
At furnace installation between combustible wooden walls or partitions it is necessary to do a backlash not less than 130 mm with tree isolation from outside cutting. Distance between a tree and "ф№ьюь" there should be not less than 250 mm. If to isolate cutting by a tree it is not possible, it is necessary to increase this distance to 380 mm. A space sometimes close from lateral faces a brick. In this case a wooden wall isolate so-called "§юыюфъющ ёх=тхЁ=і¦" i.e. A wall in 1/4 bricks which spread on the felt impregnated with a liquid clay solution.
At a laying of furnaces in new houses with timbered or bruschatymi walls should consider the big their deposit. If otstupku close from sides, it is necessary to establish the wooden board attached to a wall so that it slid between details of fastening and did not disturb a wall deposit. On this board do "§юыюфэѕ¦ ёх=тхЁ=і" also on the felt impregnated with a clay solution.
As the brick does not keep on felt, arrive as follows. At first on a board or a wall lay the felt impregnated in a clay solution, nail up and then on clay or other solution stack a brick, fix its nails with the put on washers or carry out on nails wire weaving. After a laying a brick plaster clay or other solution.
For air circulation between the furnace and "§юыюфэющ ёх=тхЁ=і¦" below and above, from lateral faces do the apertures closed by lattices. Height and width of ledges "§юыюфэющ ёрё=ш" should correspond to width otstupki and height of the furnace and to be not less than 250 mm.
When the kitchen center suit a space in an aperture of a wooden partition or between wooden walls, cutting carry out on each side the center in 1/2 bricks, and over it in height of 500 mm. On fig. 191 cutting and otstupki the furnaces established at wooden walls or partitions are shown.
Vertical cutting do not suppose bandaging with a furnace or pipe laying irrespective of, on what distance these cutting carry out. Categorically it is forbidden to connect zolniki furnaces to an underground.
It is necessary to leave an interval from top of a ceiling before overlapping of the furnace not less than 350, and at ceiling isolation - 250 mm. This interval should be accessible to survey, repair and clearing of a dust. In teploemkih furnaces in weight to 750 kg the interval makes 350 540, in neteploemkih - 700-1000 mm.
Wooden ceilings over furnaces plaster on felt or isolate two layers of the felt impregnated in a clay solution, and upholster with a roofing steel. Isolation for plaster and an upholstery a steel should be on 15 sm more on all parties, than the sizes of the furnace.
If the furnace connect to a chimney by means of a branch pipe to a wooden ceiling or partitions the distance is established not less by than 500 or 380 mm (at the isolation device).
Timber floors before toplivnikom any furnace isolate two layers of the felt soaked in a clay solution and covered with sheet of a roofing steel in the size not less 500x700 mm. At presence near the furnace of its plinth or upholster with the same felt with steel sheet, or cover with a roofing steel. Under the kitchen centers or furnaces on legs timber floors necessarily cover with asbestos or the two-layer felt isolation impregnated with a clay solution and upholstered with a roofing steel. The size of this isolation should be equal to width of the furnace or to be more it on all parties on 150 mm.
Furnaces and pipes are necessary for examining regularly and in due time to eliminate possible defects. Annually it is necessary to clear of soot of a pipe and channels.
Especially carefully it is necessary to watch furnaces in the winter when they strenuously burn.