Heating of furnaces depends on a condition of the furnace, fuel, abilities correctly to heat the furnace. It is necessary to look after the furnace regularly, i.e. To clean, cover even the most insignificant cracks which can lead to condensate formation. For example, through a 2-millimetric crack round perimetre of a framework of a latch within an hour filters to 15 m 3 air which, heating up to 80... 100°С, will carry away heat, and it makes 10% of its losses.
At giving of excessive air through blew heat losses make 15-25% and if burning occurs with open top internal dverkoj heat losses reach 40%. The furnace clean and repair one-two time in a year in summertime. Chimneys clean two-three times in a cold season.
Heating of walls of the furnace first of all depends on they are in what condition. If on walls of the furnace or in flues it is a lot of soot and ashes they heat up poorly and it is necessary to spend for a fire chamber much more fuel and time. The thickness of a layer of 1-2 mm considerably worsens perception of heat walls.
Before a fire chamber clear a grid-iron lattice, delete all ashes. It provides free passage of air to burning fuel. Fuel prepare beforehand that it was dry. Chipped fire wood is considered dry only in a year after they have been laid in a cage and were in the street under a canopy.
It is necessary to apply only dry fuel. At combustion of crude fuel the moisture available in it turns to steam which, passing on furnace channels, cools them, and getting on cold walls of a pipe, settles on them, turning to drops which, flowing down, mix up with soot, forming a condensate.
Teplotvornaja ability of fuel the different. We take, for example, dry fire wood of different breeds. For example, 3/4 m 3 oak fire wood are equivalent 1 m 3 birch, 1,2 - alder, 1,2 - pine, 1,3 - fur-tree, 1,5 - aspen. Fire wood should be pinned on logs in the average thickness 8-10 see For a fire chamber it is necessary to select logs of an identical thickness that is important for uniform heating of the furnace.
Peat can burn practically in any furnaces, but for this purpose it is necessary to strengthen draught. For peat is better to put furnaces with corresponding toplivnikom.
Duration of a fire chamber of furnaces averages 1-1,5 ch. After a fire chamber the furnace surface should be nagreta to temperature 70... 80°С, in rare instances to 90°С. At more heat the dust on a furnace surface burns, allocating an unpleasant smell. Therefore obverse walls of the furnace should be cleared regularly, wiping a dry rag gathered dust. Especially carefully it is necessary to do it in the cold season beginning. To overheat the furnace does not follow. It can lead to formation of cracks and frustration of an oven laying. The big furnaces which heat in 1-2 days, are not always good: first, they take a lot of place indoors, secondly, because of strong heating of a premise it is necessary to open often window leaves for airing that leads to the fuel over-expenditure.
In a fire chamber at once put that quantity of fire wood which is necessary for normal heating of the furnace. Put fire wood a cage or numbers with backlashes between logs to 10 mm that all logs started to light up at once from different directions, creating as much as possible heat. Thus the wood laying should not reach top toplivnika a minimum on 20 small particles of fuel and various combustible substances see Under such circumstances burn down in toplivnike before they will get to flues. First, it raises furnace temperature. Secondly, getting to the flues which have not burnt down particles litter them, and they absorb heat less. For a kindling under the bottom number put the driest logs, and under them dry chips, luchiny, a paper. Categorically it is forbidden to apply kerosene, gasoline, acetone and to that similar explosive substances.
That the furnace did not smoke, at first burn a paper, thin luchiny, a shaving, filling flues with warm air, and then kindle the furnace. Fire wood (or peat) stacks so that they an equal layer lay on a grid-iron lattice or on podu furnaces, is closer to top internal dverke.
Kindling the furnace, top internal dverku, zaslonki, a latch and vjushku open completely. After a kindling as soon as fire wood will inflame, top internal dverku close, and podduvalnuju open. Draught in the furnace regulate podduvalnoj dverkoj, a latch or vjushkoj.
Usually force of draught define on colour of a flame: if the flame red with dark strips, and from a pipe goes a brown or black smoke, means air does not suffice also its giving it is necessary to increase; if a flame golden-yellow, air giving is considered normal; if is bright-white colour, and in furnace channels buzz it means that air arrives much is heard and its giving needs to be reduced.
In the course of fuel burning to open top internal dverki it is impossible, as cold air arriving in a fire chamber cools furnace channels.
So, proceeding from stated it is possible to formulate following rules.
- In process of a fuel burn-out it is necessary to cover not only dverku toplivnika, but also partially vjushku or a latch.
- to Mix to (move) fire wood it is possible only after they will well burn through and between logs the big emptiness through which air much starts to arrive are formed, cooling the furnace.
- If there are brands them collect in the center toplivnika (poda furnaces) or a grid-iron lattice and obkladyvajut brightly burning coals. Burning out coals and brands should lie on a way of movement of air to toplivniku. Inflow of superfluous air is undesirable.
- When coals will burn through (i.e. The dark blue flame will disappear, saying that carbonic oxide is allocated), they should be levelled on a lattice or podu toplivnika, is closer to dverke, and densely to cover it. The pipe is recommended to be left opened on 5-10 mines that the carbonic oxide rests have not got into a premise that can lead to a poisoning and even destruction of people.
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