Furnaces should be strong, with smooth surfaces, especially internal, have thin seams. Walls and furnace corners should be strictly vertical. Deviations on a vertical on all height of the furnace no more than 10 mm, roughnesses on face sheets of the furnace no more than 5 mm are supposed. Laying numbers should be horizontal.
The Thickness of seams of the oven laying executed from an ordinary red brick, should be no more than 5 mm, and from a refractory and fire-resistant brick - 3 mm. The seams are more thin, the it is better to bake.
The Thickness of seams of a laying of pipes on a limy or difficult solution can reach 10 mm. Seams completely fill with a solution. At laying performance internal and external surfaces clear of the squeezed out solution hands or kelmoj. Internal surfaces toplivnikov and channels should be wiped especially well mochalnoj a brush or a wet rag. To cover with a clay solution internal surfaces of furnaces (toplivniki and channels) it is forbidden, as it quickly falls off and litters channels.
Internal surfaces of furnaces: channels, toplivniki, pipes - should be equal, without ledges and the hollows, gases obstructing to traffic and worsening furnace work. Turns and corners in channels should be rounded off, and narrowing or expansion of parts to do gradual, smooth that improves draught.
Grid-iron lattices have below a top internal aperture on 1-2 numbers of a laying (7-14 sm). Between a lattice and a laying on all perimetre leave a backlash not less than 5 10 mm. If it not to make, at heating extending metal will break a laying. Grid-iron lattices are recommended to be stacked with an inclination aside dverki on 2-3 sm that will provide skatyvanie not burnt down fuel from a back wall on a lattice. Lattice cuts have lengthways toplivnika (or from dverki).
Plates pig-iron integral or from the separate elements applied in the kitchen centers, stack on a thin layer of a clay solution on level.
The Brick before the beginning of works sort. Bricks without cracks and the broken away places apply for toplivnikov, channels and the furnace arches. The thickness of a brick should be identical that gives the chance to receive the most thin seams.
Bricks are not recommended to be put the chopped off or cut off party in a fire chamber or channels as they are less strong and from a heat will collapse that is unsafe in the fire relation.
In cold, especially in winter, solutions or materials for their preparation warm up time to 5°С.
After a laying should bake to be dried well up in the natural or artificial way. The first way is better. In the course of drying all latches and vjushki, and also window leaves should be opened all day and night. The pipe needs to be closed only for the period of a thunder-storm. On such drying 10-12 days are required approximately.
Artificial drying is made faster, it is carried out by a fire chamber of the furnace with gradual increase in quantity of dry fuel: shavings, straw, shchepy, small pinned fire wood. To dry the furnace, burning at once a considerable quantity of fire wood, it is impossible, as thus water in a brick, turning to steam, can destroy a laying.
The First bookmark of fuel should not exceed 20-25% of that quantity which is necessary for a normal fire chamber. For the second fire chamber the quantity of fuel raises to 30-40%, for the third - to 60-70% etc. To full norm. After each fire chamber all devices of the furnace should be opened, and the temperature of an external surface of the furnace should not exceed 50... 60°С.
Drying is considered finished when on a furnace surface crude stains, and on a latch or vjushke traces of a condensate (water) will cease to appear.
The Basic material for a laying of furnaces is the brick having, as it is known, six sides (surfaces). Two greatest surfaces of a brick - beds - happen bottom or top (at a laying are accordingly from below or from above). The remained two big sides name lozhkovymi, two small - tychkovymi. Sharp edges, obrazuemye sides, carry the name usenkov.
Depending on brick packing on those or other sides laying numbers name lozhkovymi or tychkovymi.
For bandaging of seams and for observance of the sizes of the furnace use the whole brick and its parts: the three-four - 3/4 bricks, halves - 1/2 and the four - 1/4 bricks. Durability of a laying in many respects depends on correctness of bandaging of seams, i.e. From displacement of numbers of a brick of the top number concerning the bottom. The best bandaging considers such when the laying is displaced on 1/2 bricks; the minimum bandaging is supposed in 1/4 bricks. Spreading furnaces, a brick put differently: flatwise, on an edge and upright.
Furnace Walls spread a different thickness: in 1/4 1/2, 3/4 and is more rare in one brick (fig. 158). For reception of thin walls a laying carry out on an edge, or in 1/4 bricks (fig. 158. Widespread a laying in 1/2 bricks, i.e. With its packing flatwise (fig. 158,). The Same thickness of a laying can be received from two 1/4 of brick, stacking them on an edge (fig. 158,). The laying in 3/4 bricks is carried out in 1/2 and 1/4 of brick, i.e. On an edge (fig. 158,).
The Laying in 1/2 bricks with full overlapping of seams carry out from two 1/4 of brick stacked on an edge, shifting a brick so that seams of the same kind did not coincide with seams of another (fig. 158.
Walls in one brick put in the thickness serially from tychkovyh (bricks are laid across a wall) and lozhkovyh (bricks stack along a wall) numbers. To bandaging of seams apply the three-four (fig. 158. The device of locks in a laying is shown on fig. 158.
to read further > >