Auxiliary materials. Drevesno-fibrous plates (DVP) are widely applied at the device of floors from a piece parquet. They provide floor designs warmly - and sound insulation. Plates are subdivided on soft (marks М-4, М-12 and М-20 by density 150-350 kg/m 3 ), semifirm (marks ПТ-100 in density of 400-800 kg/m 3 ), firm (marks Т-350 and Т-400 in density 800 kg/m 3 ) and superfirm (marks СТ-500 in density of 950 kg/m 3 ). These plates let out the different sizes, mm:
- soft in the length 1200-3000, in the width 1200 and 1700, thickness 8-25;
- semifirm in the length 2700-5500, in the width 1000-2140, in the thickness 6, 8, 12;
- firm and superfirm in the length 2500-12000, in the width 1220-2140, in the thickness 2,5-6.
Superfirm plates in the course of manufacturing paint or ground from a face sheet. They are applied to a covering of floors more often.
Under a parquet, on the basis, for zvuko - and thermal protections at first paste in one or two layers soft plates, and on them in one layer firm or superfirm. Plates should adjoin densely to the basis and to each other, differently at circulation in places bad priklejki bumps will be distributed.
Logs - nestroganye boards from wood of 2nd and 3rd grade of coniferous and deciduous breeds in the thickness of 25-40 mm, width 80-100 mm. They can be with obzolom which should not exceed 1/4 width and 2/3 thickness of a board. With obzolnoj parts completely delete a bark. Then boards well dry, antiseptirujut and once again dry. Humidity should not exceed 18%. On logs lay parquet boards or a so-called subfloor from raw boards. Logs stack on beams or on the concrete bases, enclosing under them two-three layers of roofing felt or roofing material. It protects logs from rotting and reduces noise at circulation.
the Paper or a thin cardboard find wide application at nastilke a piece parquet on the wooden bases, or subfloors: at first stack a paper or a cardboard, and then lay a parquet. It becomes that the parquet did not creak. Depending on quality of a paper parketchiku the right to lay it in one, two and more layers is granted. The paper and a cardboard can be stacked only on floors with the minimum humidity.
Pergamin is the dense waterproofing rolled material made of a roofing cardboard and impregnated with refractory bitumen. It can be applied instead of a paper and a usual cardboard. Pergamin a waterproof, strong and durable material, but it udorozhaet parquet works.
Nails are applied to the various purposes. Their length depends on a thickness a log and beaten products. Nails in diameter and 50-60 mm use length of 2-2,5 mm for nastilki a subfloor and parquet boards. To fastening of a piece parquet to the wooden bases apply nails in length of 40 mm and diameter 1,6-1,8 mm.
It is important, that at pribivanii a parquet to logs the nail did not punch them through as it breaks sound insulation of interfloor overlappings.
Mastics. For gluing of parquet laths to negvozdimym to the bases use every possible mastics from various materials, hot and cold.
Hot mastics type durability, i.e. Harden, for 2-3 ch after their drawing, cold - in 3 7 days Thus, advantage of hot mastics consists that already through 2-3 mines the pasted lath is reliably fastened to the basis and gives the chance to go there and then on svezheulozhennomu to the basis. But hot mastics have also a negative side. At a label on them of a piece parquet of a lath among themselves compress by drawing of blow by a hammer on an edge of laths. Thus mastic is sprayed and, getting on the person, hands, its temperature 160 can put strong burns, after all... 180°С. Put mastic a layer of 1-1,5 mm, the expense of 1,1-1,7 kg/m 2 . The thickness of a layer depends on quality of the basis.
The Basic material for preparation of hot and cold mastics are building oil bitumens. Besides, into structure of mastics enter: napolnitel (10 30% of weight), uajt-spirit, rubber glue, etc. Napolnitel undertakes small and dry: ground talc, diatomit, trepel and others, but is better asbestos.
Krupnost of grains pylevidnyh napolnitelej should not be more than 0,3 mm, and fibrous - 2,5 mm. Normal humidity of asbestos no more than 5%, sawdust and a peat crumb - 12%. Application napolnitelej gives the chance to use bitumens with lower temperature of a softening. Napolniteli stiffen mastic and reduce its fluidity.
Selection of making mastics demands strict observance of all recommendations. Here consider the most simple structures materials for which are easier for getting.
Bitumen mastic - the most widespread. It prepare from oil bitumen of mark БН-50/50, automobile gasoline, rosin or pine pitch. Mastic structure, mas. ch.: bitumen of mark БН-50/50 - 75,5, gasoline automobile - 21,5, rosin or pine pitch - 3. It is necessary to prepare mastic far from structures, strictly observing fire-prevention actions and safety precautions as at injection in the fused bitumen of gasoline of its pair can flash.
At cooking of bitumen with it it is necessary to impose ware with a brick, and in case of bitumen flash to cover with its densely closed cover which always is necessary for having near at hand. It is useful to fit the long handle to a cover not to approach close to hot bitumen which can be splashed out.
Prepare mastic in such sequence. Strong ware on 3/4 its volumes fill with small cut bitumen. Bitumen plavjat at constant hashing, heating up in its summer to 170... 180°С, in the winter - to 200... 220°С. The emerged extraneous impurity delete. Heat up bitumen until it will not cease to foam, then in it put rosin or pine pitch and mix until they will not fuse.
After that ware remove from fire or extinguish fire, bitumen cool to 80°С and small doses pour in in it gasoline at careful hashing. The prepared bitumen mastic merge in hermetically closed capacity in which it it is possible to store long time.
Bitumno-kukersolnuju mastic prepare from bitumen of mark БН-70/30 (26% on weight), rosin (4%), a varnish-kukersol (50%) and portlandtsementa marks 400 (20%). At first plavjat bitumen, the emerged extraneous impurity delete, add rosin and heat up to its full fusion at careful hashing. Remove from fire, add a varnish-kukersol at careful hashing, and then in the small portions at careful hashing add dry, sifted through a fine sieve portlandtsement. Store mastic in hermetically closed capacity.
Bitumen mastic "…шёъш" consists of bitumen of mark БН-70/30 (65% on weight), uajt-spirita (22%), turpentine (4%), rubber glue (2%) and cement (7%).
Mastic prepare as follows. Strong ware on 3/4 its volumes fill small cut by bitumen and heat up it to full dehydration. Then at careful hashing enter in the small portions cement. When the mix will be cooled to 75... 80°С, in it at careful hashing pour in uajt-spirit and turpentine, and after all rubber glue. Store mastic in hermetically closed capacity.
All these mastics apply in a cold condition. They are inflammable, therefore to smoke in an operating time it is forbidden.
From density of the mastic applied to gluing of a parquet, depends durability priklejki. Prior to the beginning of work mastic it is necessary to mix and check up carefully its density by immersing in it of a wooden pestle in diameter of 10 mm and weight 12 g with the millimetric divisions put to it (fig. 32). At normal density of mastic the end of a pestle with divisions plunges freely on depth of 20-30 mm.
If mastic appears dense it plant: bitumen - gasoline, bitumno-kukersolnuju - a varnish-kukersol; if mastic liquid, in it add dry portlandtsement. To dilute these mastics with any other solvent it is impossible, as they will lose the gluing properties.
The Considered mastics apply to parquet gluing on the concrete and cement bases. It is possible to prepare them or to get ready in the specialised enterprises.
Except these mastics, there are also others: bitumno-rubber, "Ђчюы" bitumno-skipidarnaja, bitumno-synthetic etc. The period of storage of these mastics from two months and is more (manufacturing date is usually specified on packing). To get mastic for emergency it is not recommended.
First coats is almost same mastics, but only more liquid. They are applied for continuous ogruntovki the bases from asfaltobetonov, cast asphalt, concrete and cement-sandy couplers at nastilke on hot or cold bitumen mastics of a piece or type-setting parquet. Ogruntovka it is carried out by a continuous layer. It is necessary, if humidity of the concrete basis or cement-sandy couplers more than 6% or if the basis zapyleno.
Appointment ogruntovki - to create a water-proof film and to provide the best coupling of bitumen mastics with the basis, and also to connect available dust on a surface of concrete or couplers. Svezheulozhennye materials of the bases can be grounded in one-two days by means of a brush or kraskopulta.
First coats usually prepare on a place of works, strictly observing fire-prevention actions and safety precautions. Materials take in parts on weight: bitumen БН-50/50 or БН-7.0/30 - 1 ch. And gasoline or kerosene - 2-3 ch. Bitumen plavjat in strong ware before full dehydration, remove from fire and give the chance to cool down to 80°С. Then pour in gasoline or kerosene and all carefully mix to a mix total homogeneity. Soljarovoe oil to apply in first coats it is not authorised.
Nastilku of a parquet on ogruntovannomu to the basis begin when the first coat completely will dry up, having formed a continuous dry film. Store first coats in hermetically sealed capacity. To smoke in an operating time it is forbidden: the first coat is explosive.
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