Knitting substances. them concern: clay, izvest, cement, plaster and others.
Izvest building air hardens only on air. Roasting of limestones receive komovuju izvest, or kipelku. This izvest demands clearing and is applied in business in a kind of the limy test. Izvest-kipelku mill to rather thin powder, receiving ground izvest. It is applied in such kind and extinguished in the solution. If necessary izvest-kipelku extinguish in pushonku - a thin powder. This clearing occurs at an insufficient quantity of water; at surplus of water the limy dough turns out.
At clearing to exhaust-kipelki in pushonku it is required about 1 m 3 waters on 1 m 3 kipelki. Kipelku scatter out of the blue a layer in 5-6 sm and water from a watering can until it will not turn to a powder. At clearing to exhaust-kipelki in the dough for 1 m 3 her 3-4 m 3 waters are required.
Depending on quality of raw materials and roasting it turns out izvest-kipelka bystrogasjashchajasja (with term of clearing no more than 8 mines), srednegasjashchajasja (from 8 to 25 mines) and medlennogasjashchajasja (more than 25 mines). To check up clearing terms it is possible so. To split a piece to exhaust-kipelki on small pieces (2-3 sm), to take it about a glass and to water a room temperature. Having noticed time of the beginning of clearing (allocation of steam and transformation to exhaust in the dough), define clearing term.
To Extinguish izvest is better in a box in height not less than 20 Clearing see carry out so. Izvest-kipelku fill in a box, filling it no more than on 1/4 heights. Large pieces kipelki are better for splitting into smaller. In the course of clearing water add in the small portions not to cool izvest, and well mix. Operation repeat until izvest it will not be put out and does not become liquid, as milk. Then it merge in any ware for storage or in specially dug hole named tvorilom where it is maintained a minimum three weeks. To merge better through a sieve with cells 2x2 or 3x3 mm.
Bystrogasjashchujusja izvest fill in a box, fill in with water so that it has covered all izvest. As soon as steam will start to be allocated, at once add water and all carefully mix. After clearing dilute with water before reception of limy milk and merge on storage. srednegasjashchujusja izvest fill in with water to half of its height. At occurrence of water steams izvest mix and gradually add water. After clearing dilute with water and merge on storage. medlennogasjashchujusja izvest humidify with water from a watering can. After occurrence on pieces to exhaust cracks (a sign of the beginning of clearing) in the small portions add water, mix. The received limy milk merge in created. From above fill in with water which add during 2-3 sut in process of evaporation. Then fall asleep the sifted sand a layer to 50 sm and so maintain. Water evaporates or absorbed by the earth and limy milk turns to the limy dough. The limy dough transformed into milk by addition of water, is applied only to whitewashing (a limy paint). Drying up, the limy dough gives big usadku, becomes covered by cracks and does not possess the necessary durability. Therefore, preparing from the test a solution, in it add sand, ground slag, a pumiceous dust etc. Such solution hardens slowly.
Izvest can replace with an industry waste, for example podzol, oksharoj, karbidnym silt. podzol - a waste of the tanning industry (izvest 3rd grades, mixed with volosom). Demands wiping through a sieve with cells not more largely 10 h 10 mm. Okshara - a waste of the textile industry (izvest 3rd grades, mixed with small woollen volosom). It should be maintained during 5-6 mes in sailings or boxes in the open air before full removal of chlorine. Karbidnyj silt - a waste of carbide of calcium at acetylene reception (izvest 2nd grades of a bluish shade with the maintenance of 40-45% of the water, polluted by neraz-laying down carbide of calcium). The endurance during 1-2 mes in the open air for smell removal is required.
Clay happens different fat content and different degree of impurity impurity. Clay solutions the most fragile.
Plaster building - the white or grayish powder of a high milling received from a plaster stone by roasting. 12 marks are produced. For civil work use basically the plaster having durability at compression 0,2 0,7 MPa (2-7 kgs/sm 2 ), with the beginning shvatyvanija not earlier than 6 mines and the end shvatyvanija not later than 30 minutes Plaster can be applied in the pure state as at shvatyvanii it does not decrease, and on the contrary, increases in volume to 1%.
Fast shvatyvanie it is not always convenient. Slows down its limy either clay solution or special zamedlitel from 0,5-2%-s' solutions bone or mezdrovogo glue or 5-10%-s' solutions drills. Solutions prepare on water.
Portlandtsement and shlakoportlandtsement - strongest of considered knitting, hardening both on air, and in water. It tonkomolotye powders of glaucous colour of different shades. The beginning shvatyvanija should come not earlier than 45 mines, the end - not later 12 ch after, zatvorenija water. Tverdenie comes to an end in 28 days
All knitting should be stored in a dry place in dense bags from a kraft-paper, well stuck or fastened. From long storage they lose the durability.
Fillers serve for reduction usadki a solution and the expense knitting. In plaster solutions as a filler use river, mountain, ovrazhnye and sea sand. The polluted sand wash out.
Sand happens different krupnosti: large - with the size of grains from 2 to 5 mm, average - from 0,5 to 2 mm and small - to 0,5 mm. Sand with grains of the acute-angled form (mountain sand) is better linked with knitting, than sand to round grains. It is the best filler for plaster solutions.
Slag sand also happens different krupnosti. It receive by crushing and sifting. It should be in sailings not less than year that from it the sulphurous and other inclusions reducing durability of the knitting have been washed up. The dust is better for eliminating 1 mm more small. Plaster from a solution on slag sand is much warmer, than on the usual. The thickness of plaster should be not less than 30 mm.
Pumice and charcoal after crushing sift. On them prepare warm easy solutions.
Different materials. They are used for warming and decrease zvukoprovodnosti designs.
Felt - a cloth fallen down from a wool. It happens different density and a thickness. For protection from ask him impregnate with 3%-s' solution of formalin. a bast mat - a cloth weaved from a bast. It should not have holes and pollution. A dirty bast mat wash and dry. The sacking happens thick and thin in rolls or pieces. It is possible to use pure bags.
Dran plaster are thin luchiny different length, width 15-20 mm, thickness of 3-4 mm. Pack bunches on 50-100 pieces of Dran it is possible to replace oshkurennymi with willow rods; large rods split-.
Nails drani are applied to stuffing in the length 25, 30 and 40 mm. 1000 pieces of nails accordingly weigh 416, 626 and 1060 At correct stuffing drani on 1 m 2 105 nails are required. Reduction of their number reduces quality of preparation.
the Wire is applied soft steel, thickness of 2-3 mm for opletenija nails by preparation of surfaces with thick nametami plasters.
the Grid is produced with cells of the different sizes: for sand sifting - 3 h 3 mm, for preparation of surfaces (instead of drani) - from 25 h 25 to 35 h 35 mm.