Pigments - it is thin the crushed white, black and colour powders, mineral (natural) and artificial, not dissolved in water and thinners. Mixed with water, oil etc. They should settle after a while on a bottom, on a surface there is a pure water, oil etc. The is more thin pigments, the above quality of colouring are crushed.
One of the basic characteristics of pigments - ukryvistost. It is expressed by quantity of grammes of the pigment necessary for colouring 1 m 2 for surface that from under it did not appear through an underlaying layer. The above covering ability of a pigment, the less it is spent. Therefore here the information about ukryvistosti some pigments is supplied.
White pigments - building izvest, a chalk, whitewash. Izvest (slaked) it is possible water to a milk condition. With it are applied only shchelochestojkie pigments. The chalk should be sifted through a fine sieve (0,5 h 0,5 mm), for preparation shpatlevok and putties it is used by the dry. Pigments are suitable any. From a chalk prepare shpatlevki, putties and glutinous painting structures. Whitewash apply to preparation of oil paints.
Metal pigments - the bronze and aluminium powders used for colouring of metals. Can be applied in water, oil and enamel structures.
ShChelochestojkie pigments - soot gas, oksid manganese, cinnabar, a mummy, minium iron, ohra, a sienna, umbra, oksid chrome, ultramarines. Are applied in glutinous, emulsionnyh and oil structures.
The painting structure can include one or several pigments.
Binding. That to painting structures to give durability, in them add the binding: in water - glue (animal or vegetative), in oil - drying oil. In limy structures binding is izvest.
Animal glue shares on mezdrovyj and bone. Mezdrovyj glue possesses the raised gluing ability in comparison with the bone. Glues let out in the form of tiles, groats, a powder. For work prepare 10%-s' solution of glue (100 g glue and 900 g waters) and 15%-s' solution (150 g is more rare some glue and 850 g water). Tiled glue prick on small pieces. Any glue fill in with cold water and leave approximately on 12 ch for swelling. Then it plavjat on pair or on a water bath (capacity with glue and water put in another, bolshego the size, capacity with water which put on fire).
Glue can and be welded directly on fire, but there is a danger that it will burn slightly, and it reduces its gluing properties. During warm time glue quickly rots, therefore it should be stored in a refrigerator.
the Flour and starch apply for zaklejki them of water (cretaceous) painting structures.
Drying oils - binding for oil structures, they happen natural, seminatural (drying oil-oksol), combined. They should dry up without otlipa for 24 ch.
Emulsionnye binding prepare from drying oil, alkali and glue. Use them as a substitute of drying oil for cultivation of the oil paints applied to internal works.
Ready painting structures (oil, enamel, varnishes) prepare at paint and varnish factories by mixing of pigments with binding and repeated retyranny by special cars.
Paints produce gustotertymi and ready to the use. The first demand for reception of working density razbavlenija drying oil and careful hashing; the second require only careful hashing as pigments settle on a bottom. On packing specify paint appointment, terms of drying, the validity etc. The special attention is necessary for turning for manufacturing date as the paint after the validity expiry of the term loses some properties. To get a paint for the future it is not recommended.
Oil paints are applied to internal and external works at colouring of metal, a tree and plaster. Paints on the basis of lead are poisonous, therefore them apply only to external works.
Enamels prepare by grinding of pigments with an oil varnish. Enamels in a ready kind for work are on sale.
Gliftalevye of enamel a general purpose apply to internal works at colouring of metal, a tree and plaster. It is not recommended to use them for colouring of floors.
Pentaftalevye of enamel serve for colouring inside and outside, on plaster, metal, concrete.
Besides, there are also other enamels. On packing their appointment and ways of application is specified.
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