First coats are the liquids well linked to a surface, forming on it a thin water-proof film on which an equal layer the painting structure lays down.
The Neogrounded surfaces are absorbed unequally by painting structure, therefore colouring it turns out non-uniform: stains, strips. Without ogruntovki qualitatively to perform work it is impossible.
As a rule, first coats have strictly certain appointment, for example: only for glutinous or only for limy colourings, but happen also universal.
To preparation of first coats apply various ware: for kuporosnyh - wooden, glass or enameled as metal quickly collapses. For protection from destruction the steel capacity can be painted over for two-three times an oil paint, well drying each layer then in it it is possible to prepare kuporosnyj a ground.
First coats under limy colouring. A first coat on the limy test with salt (structure № 1). On 10 l of structure: 2,5 kg of the limy fat test, 50-100 g table salt. (Instead of salt it is possible to take 200 g aljumokalievyh alum.)
In 5 l of cold water carefully stir the limy dough. In 2 l of water (it is better boiling) dissolve salt or alum and pour in a thin stream in the dissolved limy dough, carefully mix and dilute with water to volume of 10 l. The prepared first coat should be filtered through a sieve with apertures section no more 1x1 mm. Salt and alum fix izvest, and colouring not otmelivaetsja (does not spoil).
The Best on quality of a first coat prepare on to exhaust-kipelke or the limy test with soap and drying oil addition. Such first coats name mylovarom. Mylovar it is suitable both under limy, and under glutinous colourings.
the First coat mylovar on to exhaust-kipelke (structure № 2). On 10 l of structure: 1-2 kg to exhaust-kipelki (komovoj not slaked), 200 g a laundry soap 40 of%-s', 100 g drying oils.
Soap cut small shavings and dissolve in 2-3 l of boiling water. In hot soap water a squirt add drying oil, carefully peremeshchivajut before reception of a homogeneous mylno-oil liquid without appreciable layers of drying oil. In 5 l of water extinguish izvest and during its boiling (clearing) gradually, stirring slowly, pour in in it a mylno-oil liquid and carefully all mix before reception of homogeneous structure. Add water to volume of 10 l and protsezhivjut through a sieve. At the prepared first coat on a surface oil drops should not float.
the First coat mylovar on the limy test (structure № 3). On 10 l of structure: 2-3 kg of the limy test (fat), 200 g a laundry soap 40 of%-s', 100 g drying oils.
In 2-3 l of boiling water dissolve soap. In hot soap water pour in a squirt drying oil, carefully mixing. The received mylno-oil liquid slowly pour in in the limy dough, carefully mix, dilute with water to volume of 10 l and filter through a fine sieve.
The First coat mylovar on to exhaust-kipelke on quality it is better.
If surfaces are strongly smoked (have turned yellow), mylovar prepare on any of recipes, increasing quantity of soap to 400 g, drying oils to 300-400 g by 10 l of structure. The first coat mylovar is suitable both under limy, and under glutinous colourings. However in painting structures it is necessary to apply shchelochestojkie pigments.
For glutinous colourings it is better to prepare kuporosnuju or kvastsovuju a first coat.
First coats under glutinous colouring (structure № 4). Kuporosnaja a first coat under glutinous colouring. On 10 l of structure: 100-150 g copper kuporosa, 250 g a laundry soap 40 of%-s', 200 g dry animal glue, 25-30 g drying oils, 2-3 kg of a chalk.
In 3 l of boiling water dissolve copper kuporos, carefully it mixing. In 2 l of water cook glue. Soap also dissolve in 2 l of water in separate ware, pour in it in glue and all carefully mix.
In a hot mylno-glutinous liquid at hashing by a squirt pour in drying oil, receiving emulsiju. In emulsiju at constant hashing pour in a squirt a solution copper kuporosa (not on the contrary!). After cooling of the received liquid in it add a chalk and add water to volume of 10 l. The homogeneous zelenovato-bluish liquid turns out. A first coat filter through a frequent copper sieve or a gauze and merge for storage.
Kvastsovaja a first coat under glutinous colouring (structure № 5). On 10 l of structure: 150 g aljumokalievyh alum, 200 g a laundry soap 40 of%-s', 200 g firm animal glue, 25-30 g drying oils, 2-3 kg of a chalk.
In 3 l of boiling water dissolve alum. Separately, in 2 l of boiling water, dissolve glue. Soap is better for dissolving also separately in 2 l of boiling water. In a glue solution pour in a soap solution, mix and add at hashing drying oil. In received mylno-glutinous oil emulsiju at constant hashing pour in a solution of alum, cool, pour the sifted chalk and dilute with water to the specified volume. A first coat filter through a fine sieve and merge for storage.
If surfaces are strongly smoked also them it is necessary ogruntovyvat not one, and two-three times, ogruntovku carry out the first strong hot structure with temperature 70... 80°С. The second ogruntovku carry out a little weaker warm structure (40... 50°С). Third ogruntovku carry out the weakest structure, slightly tepid or cold. Temperature decrease is necessary that each subsequent first coat could not fuse earlier put. Each new layer put on well dried up (not less than days) to the previous.
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