Boxes, platbands, podokonnye boards (window sills), window leaves, otlivy from time and misuse of doors and window covers become unstuck, crack, warp, rot etc. In this case they are subject to repair.
Doors and covers produce so that in pritvore they had thinnesses in width from 2 to 2,5 mm. It is necessary for the further colouring. Inside doors never hang closely to a floor. Between a door and a floor there should be a backlash not less than 10 mm that at a door it was possible to put paths or a carpet and it would be advisable to opening and door closing.
Indoors or the apartment does not happen a threshold. It can be only in rublenyh wooden houses. In other houses bottom brusok lift over floor level on 10-15 mm only in entrance doors.
To repair of doors and covers widely apply screws the different sizes. They can be with a secret, semisecret or semicircular head. Their length from 7 to 120 mm, a thickness from 1,6 to 10 mm, diameter of a head from 3 to 20 mm. For zavertyvanija screws in heads cut shlitsy (flutes) of different width and depth that depends on the sizes of screws.
Screws with a secret head turn in wood zapodlitso with a detail surface. Such screws basically apply to fastening of loops, dead locks and some details. Screws with a semisecret and semicircular head it is possible privertyvat unprofitable locks, handles, latches and other devices in which heads will not disturb to their work.
it is necessary to pay attention to a carving of screws (fig. 1). The sharp carving runs into wood, cutting its fibres and by that strongly keeps a screw. At a stupid carving the screw only rumples fibres and consequently is badly kept in wood. Thus loops weaken, start to shake or depart. Besides, screws badly keep at zavertyvanii them along wood fibres, i.e. In end faces.
Loops happen the different sizes. The loop consists of two cards with hinges into which the core is inserted. In each card is available two or more apertures for screws. Razzenkovka apertures should be such that the hat of a screwed screw was or flush with a card face sheet (zapodlitso), or rolled in it a little; but at all did not act because of a card plane.
The Card can consist of one or two plates (double is much stronger). Loops happen to the core closed up in the hinge, polusharnirnye with the core which has been closed up in one card (demountable), and with the taken out core (fig. 2).
Polusharnirnye of a loop and a loop with a taken out core use for naveshivanija doors and covers. Loops with the cores closed up in the hinge apply to window leaves, transoms etc. Loops with taken out cores as give the chance to remove doors are especially convenient or shutters of cover without unscrewing screws. They are irreplaceable there where for any reasons it is impossible to raise a door or a shutter during their removal.
Loops select for the sizes of a shutter or a door, a transom or a window leaf, on a thickness bruskov or gorbylkov and bruskov obvjaza.
Prirezka of loops. Installation of loops into place is called prirezkoj as under loops it is necessary to cut out wood for a thickness of a card. If cards of loops act because of a plane of a box, cover or, on the contrary, will be drowned in it a door, the window leaf or a transom will densely not be closed, and at strong pressing a door, a window leaf etc. Loops can or be bent, or at all pull out screws.
If loops act from a quarter or door plane it is easy for correcting a little, having cut off wood in nests under loops. If nests have appeared deeper and loops strongly roll in them under loops it is possible to enclose a cardboard, a dense paper, etc. Thus screws should be unscrewed, and loops to remove.
Strengthening of boxes. it is necessary to strengthen boxes of external doors of the house or apartment More often. It basically concerns buildings from a brick and to it of similar materials. In wooden buildings of it it is not necessary to do, in a case of necessity they need to be fixed nails.
In stone, brick, concrete walls of a box of doors fasten in the course of filling of doorways. A box establish so that it was strictly vertical and horizontal. For this purpose apply wedges with which help lift this or that party of a box. After that a box krepjat in three points from each lateral face: one point on distance of 1 m from a floor and two others on distance of 30 sm from top and a box bottom. For this purpose in a wall (against a box quarter) drill apertures depth not less than 50 mm and densely hammer there in wooden stoppers. Establish a box and drive in into stoppers nails. Hats of nails are recommended to be drowned in thickness of wood of a box not less than on 2 mm. Nails apply thick, and it is even better to use steel probes in diameter of 8-10 mm. For this purpose in a box it is necessary to drill preliminary under them apertures in diameter on 2-3 mm of less diameter of applied probes.
If boxes have been strengthened by builders poorly they are necessary for strengthening in addition. For this purpose it is necessary to drill a mechanical or electric drill with pobeditovym a tip in diameter of an aperture of 8-10 mm in a wall depth a minimum of 50 mm. (Drilling is made through a box quarter.) measure depth of the drilled aperture, cut off the same length the steel probe, hammer in it so that it has been drowned in thickness of wood on 2-3 mm.
At box strengthening from outside loops it is recommended to drill not less than three apertures in a box quarter. Into these apertures hammer in steel probes so that they acted from a quarter plane on 10-15 mm. Against these apertures at doors drill apertures depth not less than 20 mm and such diameter that probes freely entered into these apertures and did not disturb to door closing. It reliably strengthens not only a box, but also a door as the let out ends of probes will enter into apertures at doors (fig. 3).
If the box is executed from thick bruskov and there is no long drill arrive as follows. Drill apertures only in a box so that on a wall there were labels. Then remove a box (if it probably) and bore through apertures in a wall. Then a box put into place and fix. But it is a labour-consuming variant, it is better to get a drill with tverdosplavnym a tip and to extend with its way navarivanija an additional core.
The Door box should enter densely into a door aperture in a wall, however is frequent between it and a wall there is enough big backlash through which leaves warmly (fig. 4). It is necessary for closing up carefully. For this purpose at first tear off platbands, measure width of cracks between a box and a wall, make wooden rejki the necessary thickness and hammer them in cracks. Instead of wooden rejki it is possible to use a solution, it is better bystroshvatyvajushchijsja, with fibrous additives: plaster, gipsotsementnyj, cement. After drying of a solution platbands put into place.
Krepit rejki is possible before strengthening of a box and after, cutting rejki such length that they passed between probes. Rejki it is possible to drown slightly more deeply a box and wall plane, and the remained place to fill with plaster or other solution.
It is necessary to mean that if cracks are not closed up by a solution or rejkami the box hangs on nails or probes and is quickly loosened. Thus, zadelka backlashes it is rather desirable not only from the point of view of a thermal protection.
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