Fire-prevention cutting. From deposits of various designs, blows, the concussions, badly executed laying of cutting the last gradually collapse. The laying is upset, the clay solution is painted. All it is unsafe in the fire relation. More often cutting collapse at door boxes which should be fixed reliably. The thickness of cutting depends on a design of furnaces: for usual room furnaces - not less than 120 mm (half of brick). For the kitchen centers and the heating furnaces which walls heat up from above 100°С, - 250 mm with an obligatory lining of the felt soaked in a clay solution. More reliable are cutting by thickness of 380 mm which put without a felt lining for bolshej safety or with a lining. Instead of brick cutting it is possible to do concrete of separate elements or to put a skeleton, pulling on it a grid and plastering its cement mortal. Such cutting is strong and its thickness from 30 mm has no seams.
Especially it is necessary to pay attention to cutting within an attic which need to be examined and bleached periodically limy or cretaceous whitewashing. On whitewashing in the presence of through cracks in a laying it is easy to notice black touches of soot.
Major repairs. This repair demands more or less long work with a furnace stop for the necessary term that is connected with complexity of works. The given repair includes change futerovki toplivnika and zharovogo the channel, alteration toplivnika with deaf podom on toplivnik with a grid-iron lattice and podduvalom, alteration toplivnika for fire wood on toplivnik for burning of coals, scheme alteration dymooborotov etc. For performance of such works it is necessary to assort partially the furnace or only one-two walls.
Change futerovki toplivnika. a furnace Wall assort from poda zolnika on height toplivnika. If simultaneously it is necessary to alter and flues a wall assort to the reroof. Futerovku carry out without its bandaging with the basic laying from an ordinary brick. At first assort a good laying futerovki, clear walls of the furnace of a solution, clean all dust and start facing on a fire-resistant solution. The thickness futerovki remains same what was earlier: from a brick on an edge, in the big furnaces - from a brick flatwise. The thickness of seams should be no more than 3 mm.
At to alteration of flues at first also assort existing, and then carry out them again, tying up with the basic laying and leaving the same sizes (fig. 203).
Alteration toplivnika with deaf podom on toplivnik with podduvalom and a grid-iron lattice. If the furnace basis is from poda on distance of five numbers of a laying or more top internal dverku leave on a place. If the quantity of numbers of a laying is less, dverku lift on some numbers. Thus the height toplivnika for fire wood is accepted not less than 500-550 mm, and for coal not less than 400-450 mm. toplivniki for coal equip hermetically closed podduvalnymi and top internal dverkami. In vjushkah or latches drill apertures in diameter of 10-15 mm. Grid-iron lattice under anthracite put the same size, as for fire wood, but heavier (thick). The Operating procedure following. At first assort a forward wall, remove dverku, assort under layings, clean dust and start a laying with the device blew, podduvalnoj dverki, a grid-iron lattice and top internal dverki. Then the disassembled wall close up a brick with observance of bandaging of seams.
Alteration of one furnace for two. Assort one of walls of the big furnace, define the sizes and plan alteration of the internal device for two independent furnaces with separate toplivnikami and flues which only above, about a reroof, converge in one pipe. If it it is impossible to make, it is necessary to do the pipe for each furnace.
It is necessary to approach To each separate case of repair and alteration individually, carefully having thought over all process of work, observing corresponding care.
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