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Russian furnaces (a part 2)

The Most responsible part of the furnace is a cooking chamber. The brick for its device should be perfect, especially for arch performance 16. walls of the cooking chamber can be a various thickness. Thin walls quickly heat up, but also quickly cool down, thick - on the contrary. Normal the thickness of walls in 3/4 bricks (is considered a brick flatwise and on an edge), but it is better in 1 brick. Forward external and internal walls before a hearth carry out in 1/2 bricks. The chamber arch should have a bias to a mouth. At the reroof device 18 over the chamber the top plane of the furnace should be equal. As the arch is executed with a bias, on it it is necessary to arrange levelling layer in the form of sandy zasypki 17. Some stove-makers zasypku replace with a clay solution on small brick rubble.

Under it is located in the bottom part of the cooking chamber. The equal and smooth brick is necessary for its performance. Nastilku poda conduct without a solution, dry. To its beginning it is necessary to make zasypku 4 of a material which is accumulating in warmth and in regular intervals getting warm. Good zasypka provides normal propekanie bakery products from the bottom party.

For zasypki the coarse-grained sand mixed with beaten glass (sheet, bottle, etc. approaches.) or with gravel or rubble krupnostju 150-180 mm. If apply small gravel or rubble they should be mixed with sand, and atop to fill a layer of coarse-grained sand in the thickness of 20-30 mm.

Lay under with small smooth lifting (30-50 mm) to a back wall of the chamber that provides uniform combustion of all fuel. If under to make horizontal fuel, burning down very slowly, will poorly heat up the furnace. Under lay in two ways: or after one number of a laying of walls above level poda or after the cooking chamber will be laid out completely will be laid out. In the first case to work much more conveniently; in the second - it is necessary to work lying on a breast.

the arch Form (fig. 181) in Russian furnaces plays an enormous role. One forms to spread easier, others - it is more difficult. The arches polutsirkulnoj forms to spread easier, but from them hot gases are non-uniformly reflected and under heats up more poorly. It is the strong arch and loading perceived by it in very small degree it is transferred to walls. Flat trehtsentrovye the arches to put more difficultly, and they hold apart walls more, but provide uniform and strong heating poda. The flat arches very well heat up under, but do not maintain the big loading, the device of couplers on an obverse surface of the furnace from a round, angular or strip steel therefore demand.

Some stove-makers do trehtsentrovye the arches bochkoobraznoj forms. Except usual lifting to a back wall, such arch still has lifting on 30 mm in the average part, exceeding lifting at a back wall. The width of the arch also increases in the middle by 50-60 mm. The arch bochkoobraznoj forms to spread more difficultly, but the furnace gets warm is better; hot gases are as though spread under the arch and do not get in peretrube, as well as sparks, and it is more safe in the fire relation.

Many masters recommend to make narrower the cooking chamber to a mouth on 40-90 mm as it also improves furnace work in comparison with the furnaces having the chamber of identical width.

The Arch of any form spread simultaneously from both parties, moving ahead to the middle. When there will be an interval less 1/4 of brick, in it with effort put zamkovyj a brick covered from three parties with a clay solution.

This brick should press all earlier laid bricks to each other. Therefore into the place left for it in it sometimes hammer a log or kijankoj (a wooden hammer). Heels, or platforms, in walls against which the arch, vytesyvajut from a good brick with the necessary bias for what the brick is necessary for checking a template leans.

For vykladyvanija the arch with odd quantity of bricks when last brick happens zamkovym, the arch should be calculated, having drawn on a paper full-scale.

Most easier to arrange the pise-walled arch. For this purpose produce a strong timbering and prepare glinobit - a usual clay solution for a brick oven laying. Glinobit should be very dense. If on it to rise, on it should not remain traces from footwear. If from it to prepare a brick full-scale, to put its middle on a stick, it should be bent slightly only. Glinobit prepare on a wooden board a layer 5-7 see of 10-15 sm so that edges have been cut off on a cone Cut its strips the in width. Strips stack on a timbering executed on a curve of the arch, and well condense with a wooden hammer in diameter not less than 10 see to Moisten joined edges with water during time stykovanija it is impossible. In week or more timbering assort. The laying above the arch is made usually.

Lateral walls over the arch to a reroof form as though a box with which fill with sand, and from above from a brick in one number lay a reroof. Sometimes it completely spread from a brick. However such thick walls badly transfer heat. Better in one or both walls to make small stoves (deepening). The quantity of small stoves depends on length of the chamber, them can be 3 or 4. They well transfer heat in a premise and are rather convenient for drying of small subjects. Small stoves it is necessary to have so that they were blocked at level of a reroof by two-three numbers of a laying. Width of small stoves of 150-200 mm, height - 210 mm. Partitions between them carry out in 1/2 bricks that gives the chance to block small stoves from above the whole brick.

Samovarniki, or dushniki, happen square or round. Sometimes into them insert dverki, close boxes from a roofing steel is more often. Sometimes for this purpose use wooden chocks that is undesirable as there are cases of their ignition. The box form should repeat the aperture form. It is desirable to insert in dushnik a framework under the form of an aperture from a roofing steel which protects it from destruction by a cover. For dushnika necessarily arrange the separate channel closed by a small latch that through it during winter time a premise did not leave warmly.

As it has been told earlier, for more reliable closing of the furnace it is recommended to put instead of one latch two or a latch and vjushku. Have their one over another on distance of three-five numbers of a laying. More often at the pipe beginning put vjushku, and over it a latch, sometimes - on the contrary. If the channel dushnika deduce so that it is between vjushkoj and a latch, when put a samovar, it is enough to open only a latch (if it above vjushki). The latch over vjushkoj is convenient also that for the best heating of a guard or peretrubja cover a latch a little, regulating thereby an exit from the furnace of hot gases in a pipe. Vjushka closes the channel more densely a latch as at first stack blinok, and then all cover. To open and close latches more conveniently, than vjushki.

Fuel in the Russian furnace is recommended to be stacked more close to a mouth as burning thus improves. Ware for cooking put about a mouth on under the cooking chamber. At a batch of bread after a fire chamber all ashes remove from the cooking chamber, under sweep up a broom or a broom. A shovel slightly strew a flour, put on it the prepared dough of the necessary form (usually round), bring a shovel with the test to a mouth, move on podu into a proper place and jerky dump (shift) the dough on under, "ёрцр¦=" bread.

Having got acquainted with the basic details of the furnace and the requirements shown to them, it is possible to start a laying, strictly observing porjadovki and. Carefully carrying out bandaging of seams.

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