Russian furnaces happen the different sizes and different designs - simple and more difficult, to a plate and a heating guard. These furnaces are almost universal, but have also some lacks. So, in them preparation of some dishes demanding supervision over their preparation is complicated: in a hearth of the Russian furnace to observe of it it is almost impossible.
The Big lack of Russian furnaces is that they allocate heat since level poda furnaces which is on distance to 900 mm from a floor, and that part of a premise which is more low poda, does not heat up.
Not all fuel in the Russian furnace burns simultaneously in all points of a hearth. So, the part of fuel which is more close to a mouth, burns down much faster, than that that is at a back wall. It occurs because the most part of the oxygen necessary for burning, is spent at the mouth and to its back wall reaches very little.
Here furnaces of the average sizes are considered. If the small or big furnace she gives all the best in the same way, only in the reduced or increased kind is necessary. Devices are used the same.
we Will consider details the simple Russian furnace without samovarnika (fig. 180). The furnace is under construction on the strong base, on 100 mm exceeding the sizes of the furnace. In its bottom part there is a free space - podpeche 1 with an aperture in a forward part of the furnace. podpeche it is used for storage of oven stock: uhvatov, pokers, scoops, etc.
Podpeche is blocked by the brick arch, strip, angular or other shaped steel, concrete balochkami or wooden bruskami on which arrange a concrete or wooden flooring 2. Boards take thick, nestroganye. The most safe in the fire relation are ferro-concrete either concrete plates or a brick flooring on steel or concrete beams. Their ends should come on laying walls at least on 50, and it is better on 100 mm. At level of a flooring from a forward part of the furnace do cold small stoves 3.
In order to avoid strong heating on a wooden flooring it is necessary to stack two-three-layer isolation from the felt soaked in a clay solution and covered from above with a roofing steel which preliminary paint from two parties. Such isolation protects boards from excessive heating and warns vysypanie zasypki 4 from under poda 5. Seams between concrete plates or bricks necessarily coat with any solution. Besides, wooden parts are necessary for processing preliminary an antiseptic tank against bugs-drevoedov and a wood mushroom.
From the forward party at level poda furnaces, approximately at height of 800-900 mm from a floor, suit shestok 6, an equal platform from a brick on which is better to lay a pig-iron plate without rings. The plate protects a brick platform from fast destruction and facilitates removing on it of ware. Over shestkom leave a squared shape aperture - a window shestka 7. On shestok put various ware.
The Window shestka is blocked brick arochkoj or two pieces of an angular or strip steel. From a face sheet put an angular steel, and with internal - strip because it heats up less. The wide shelf of a corner leaving in peretrube 10, heats up more strongly. Under fire prevention rules here it is impossible to apply wooden bars. Instead of them it is possible to lay concrete balochku.
In all other cases, except listed, at a laying of furnaces in places of strong heating it is not recommended to apply a steel as, heating up, it extends and destroys a laying.
Against shestka the furnace body - the cooking chamber 8 (hearth) with an aperture - a forehead 9 (mouth) in a forward wall of the chamber which happens a squared shape or in the form of the arch is located. The mouth serves for zakladyvanija in a hearth of fuel, installation of ware with food. Over a mouth, to hearth top, the wall - a gas threshold 11 by height not less than 180 mm is located, considering from hearth top. The hearth arch should be raised not less than on 50 mm in comparison with its forward party, considering from shestka. It is necessary that hot gases all time were in under-summary the space located above a mouth, and heated up not only the arch, but also under furnaces. Hot gases detained thus there completely burn down, promoting furnace heating. If such threshold is not present, hot gases will leave in atmosphere.
In shestke on the right (or on the right and at the left) from a mouth there are the hollows named zolnikami or ochelkami 12. In them often there is a various ware or ashes. The furnace mouth is closed by a barrier (zaslonkoj) the necessary form with one or two handles.
Over shestkom it is located peretrube 10 (as though overturned box) in which the smoke gathers, whence it gets to a pipe. That the furnace did not smoke, the distance from shestka to peretrubja should not exceed height of a mouth of the furnace more than on 220 mm (three numbers of a laying). peretrube, i.e. A smoky course from a mouth of the furnace to most vjushki, it should be narrowed gradually, instead of ledges that is reached by stesyvanija a brick. If at observance of these conditions nevertheless will bake to smoke, dymlenija it is necessary to search for the reason in a pipe.
For catching of sparks at an exit of gases in a chimney before vjushkoj 13 or a latch 14 arrange a special wall with skosom, forming as though box in which besides soot gathers falling with walls of a pipe. Before vjushkoj put densely closed dverku. The furnace can be closed or only one latch, or only one vjushkoj, but more densely it is closed by that and another simultaneously or two latches above which the pipe 15 begins. the latch is recommended to be put above vjushki which is a good extract.
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