Manufacturing of brushes. It is possible to make the big and small brushes also. We will consider the elementary way.
At first produce a ring from roofing or thicker (1-1,5 mm) steels and fasten its ends one or two rivets (diameter of a ring depends on diameter of a brush).
the Ring can be height from 10 to 20 mm. The handle vystrugivajut on a cone from a seasoned wood impregnated with drying oil, also dry. Length of a thick part of the handle mahovoj brushes of 20 mm, total length from 200 to 300 mm. Then do a board-opravku in length of 300-400 mm with three apertures in diameter 10, 15, 20 mm (fig. 81). (The Board is required at zabivke handles in hair or a bristle.) the distance between apertures should be not less than 60-70 mm.
Hair or a bristle collect in a bunch of such diameter that the handle could enter into it densely. Having pressed hair to a ring, it straighten with blow about a board and connect a strong thread. Take to bank into which the connected bunch of hair should enter freely, pour there drying oil (an oil varnish, a solution joiner's or kazeinovogo glue) a layer of 7-10 mm and lower in it the connected bunch so that hair was moistened only on height of 15-20 mm. Then the moistened party a bunch insert into a ring, and the sharp end of the handle put precisely in the center of a bunch from the opposite party from a ring and drive in with its hammer. As soon as the handle end will seem from hair, a brush put over a smaller, 10-millimetric aperture of a board and hammer in the handle until the aperture not begins to interfere with its further passage. After that hair with the handle rearranges of 15 mm on the second aperture in diameter and also hammer, then rearrange on the third aperture (20 mm) and hammer until the handle from blow will not cease to enter into brush hair. Opravka it is necessary that at zabivke the handle last did not drag behind herself hair.
As a result of such zabivki the handle densely presses hair to a ring and consequently it does not drop out. Besides, from drying oil, a varnish or glue of hair sticks together and it is even more densely kept in a ring.
The Brush is dried by 2-3 days, correct the ends and if it is necessary cut off surpluses of the handle which are in hair, to level of a ring or it is a little above.
In such a way it is possible to make mahovye brushes and bench hammers of the necessary diameter. The length of hair of a brush can be from 100 to 180 mm.
Preparation of brushes for work. In a dry kind of hair and a bristle are rigid and leave on a surface rough strips which reduce cleanliness of colouring. That it was not, new brushes should be lowered approximately on an hour per water. Hair and a bristle from water are softened and bulk up, increase in volume. It protects a bristle and hair from loss during colouring.
The Wetted brushes before oil colouring should be dried well. However and the brushes prepared thus can leave strips because of separate acting hair. Therefore the brush should straighten, i.e. To work as them of 10-20 mines on rough plaster, concrete or a brick, of course, having moistened in water or a paint. To burn a brush for alignment does not follow, as more valuable part of a bristle - tags thus can burn down. Such operation can subject only brushes from a pure horsehair and a grass.
Care of brushes. to reduce deterioration of hair of a brush, it is necessary to satisfy following conditions. In the course of colouring the brush is necessary for rotating periodically in hands, providing with that uniform deterioration of hair or a bristle on all circle of a brush. If it not to do, it will work well together not in regular intervals: from one or two parties the shovel is formed as though.
Istiranie of hair of a brush at colouring of different surfaces not equally so, at colouring of wooden surfaces by an oil paint the brush wears out less, than at colouring of the metal, plastered and brick surfaces.
The Brush in weight 400 g it is possible to paint an oil paint on the average 500-800 m 2 surfaces. At colouring by glutinous paints deterioration of brushes decreases: one brush it is possible to paint about 1000 m 2 .
During a short-term break at work as oil paints of a brush it is necessary to lower in a bucket with water, kerosene or turpentine or to hold them in drying oil or that paint which carry out colouring but so that they did not concern volosom a bottom of capacity and were not deformed. For suspension in handles of brushes do an aperture, pass in it a twine and suspend a brush on a hook or a nail. Trays with special clips are most convenient. Brushes in a wooden frame should not be wetted in water: the tree bulks up, glue razmokaet and hair gets out.
After the termination of works of a brush carefully wash. From oil and a paint at first wash in kerosene, turpentine or uajt-spirite, and then in soap water until water will not cease to be painted. (In gasoline and acetone to wash brushes it is not recommended: they dry hair, it breaks and remains on a painted surface.) especially carefully look after for tortsovkami and flejtsami. It is necessary to wash them not only after each day of work, but even for the period of a lunch break. Temporarily tied up brushes before washing need to be untied, differently the paint under obvjazkoj will dry up also a brush becomes further unsuitable to work. To hold brushes it is recommended in a special tray with a grid.
Glutinous paints are easily washed by water, it is better warm or hot. From glutinous paints of a brush it is recommended to wash every day. After washing them wring out, form a torch and suspend volosom downwards. If hair disperses, it slightly connect a gauze. Do not throw out the worked brushes: they can be useful for various works.
Platens (fig. 82) considerably surpass brushes in productivity. Them cover with fur or foam rubber and apply at ogruntovke and colouring of walls, ceilings etc. It is necessary to mean that in limy paints the fur quickly collapses.
Platens with a fur covering prior to the beginning of work should be put for some time in water that hair had identical rigidity.
Diameter of platens can be from 40 to 70 mm, length of 100-250 mm. Platens fix in machine tools which consist of the handle with a core and an axis. The platen can be from a tree or duralumin (last is better). To the wooden platen krepjat the metal plug. The platen put on the sewed fur stocking (from a fur of the tsigal sheep or a sheepskin with a wool 15-20 mm or from a fleecy fabric are not longer). Such stocking types a lot of paint, therefore it wring out about a grid which establish naklonno in a tray. It is possible to replace a grid with a piece of a tin or a roofing steel, having filled on it apertures. A tray replace with a cone-shaped bucket.
The Platen can be made of foam rubber, drilling its special mill in the form of the cylinder of the necessary diameter in length of 130-150 mm with walls in the thickness no more than 1 mm. On one end of a mill should be zubchiki, as at a saw. Other end close a bottom (cover) on which the shaft for platen fastening in a machine tool cartridge is welded.
In a mill on a carving establish a hollow tube in diameter of 10 mm, on length equal to a mill. One end of a tube has a carving, another - is sharply ground. A mill krepjat in a cartridge and, having put a boring machine on high turns, from a foam rubber file drill platens with an aperture in the middle (the friction decreases at greasing of a mill from the external and internal parties lubricating oil). Into an aperture of the ready platen insert a tube which put on an axis and fix a nut with a washer.
Racks of protections of balconies, staircases are more convenient for painting the dual platen fixed in the special machine tool, reminding itself scissors (fig. 82 see).
Shpateli use for drawing and levelling shpatlevki. They happen metal and wooden (fig. 83).
Metal shpateli should be made of an elastic steel. A shaft shpatelja put on the handle from firm breeds of a tree. Such shpateli usually apply for shpatlevanija on metal and a tree, them clear surfaces of old putty, wall-paper, paints etc. The edge shpatelej should be equal, well ground, width from 30 to 100 mm.
Wooden shpateli basically use for drawing and levelling shpatlevki on a tree and plaster. Produce them from dense breeds of a tree (a beech, a maple, a birch) with width of an edge 150-200 mm, length shpatelja from 150 to 180 mm. An edge well plane and smooth out.
That shpateli were less jarred on, it is necessary to impregnate them with hot drying oil and to insert into a crevice between two brought down boards. An edge shpatelej mow down a little and periodically point.
in the length 1000, in the width 30-50 and thickness of 10 mm (with the facet removed on the one hand) produce the Ruler from any seasoned wood. It is required for otvodki panels and other purposes.
Except the considered tool for work the knife, a chisel, a steel brush, a bucket, basins, a fine sieve or a gauze are necessary. Most conveniently enameled ware: it does not rust, does not collapse kuporosom and easily washes. Ware from the zinced or black steel to protect it from the fast destruction, preliminary two-three times cover with an oil paint. After each colouring it needs to be dried not less than two-three days.
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